Little is known about the effect of serving temperature on saltiness perception in food products such as soups that are typically consumed at high temperature. This study focused on determining whether serving temperature modulates saltiness perception in soup-base products. Eight trained panelists and 62 untrained consumers were asked to rate saltiness intensities in salt water, chicken broth, and miso soup, with serving temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C. Neither trained nor untrained panelists were able to find significant difference in the saltiness intensity among salt water samples served at these five different temperatures. However, untrained consumers (but not trained panelists) rated chicken broth and miso soup to be significantly saltier when served at 70 and/or 80 °C compared to when served at 40 to 60 °C. There was an interaction between temperature-related perceived saltiness and preference; for example, consumers who preferred soups served at lower temperatures found soups served at higher temperatures to be less salty. Consumers who frequently consumed hot dishes rated soup samples served at 60 °C as saltier than consumers who consumed hot dishes less frequently. This study demonstrates that soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits are influential factors affecting saltiness perception of soup.
Background/Objectives:Previous studies have demonstrated the satiating properties of soups compared with solids; however, the mechanisms controlling soup-induced satiety are unknown. This study aimed to understand the physiological mechanisms causing soup to be more satiating.Subjects/Methods:A total of 12 volunteers were tested on three occasions after a solid meal, chunky soup or smooth soup test meal for gastric emptying (GE) using the sodium [1-(13)C] acetate breath test, satiety using visual analog scales (VAS) and glycaemic response (GR) using finger prick blood samples.Results:There was a significant difference in GE half-time (P=0.022) and GE ascension time (P=0.018), with the longest GE times for the smooth soup and the shortest for the solid meal. The GR area under the curve was significantly different between meals (P=0.040). The smooth soup had the greatest GR (87.0±49.5 mmol/l/min), followed by the chunky soup (65.4±48.0 mmol/l/min), with the solid meal having the lowest GR (61.6±36.8 mmol/l/min). Volunteers were fuller after the smooth soup compared with solid meal (P=0.034).Conclusions:The smooth soup induced greater fullness compared with the solid meal because of a combination of delayed GE leading to feelings of gastric distension and rapid accessibility of nutrients causing a greater glycaemic response.
There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n=148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over five consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking.
Maladaptive disgust responses are tenacious and resistant to exposure-based interventions. In a similar vein, laboratory studies have shown that conditioned disgust is relatively insensitive to Conditioned Stimulus (CS)-only extinction procedures. The relatively strong resistance to extinction might be explained by disgust’s adaptive function to motivate avoidance from contamination threats (pathogens) that cannot be readily detected and are invisible to the naked eye. Therefore, the mere visual presentation of unreinforced disgust eliciting stimuli might not be sufficient to correct a previously acquired threat value of the CS+. Following this, the current study tested whether the efficacy of CS-only exposure can be improved by providing additional safety information about the CS+. For the CSs we included two neutral items a pea soup and a sausage roll, whereas for the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) we used one video clip of a woman vomiting and a neutral one about glass blowing. The additional safety information was conveyed by allowing actual contact with the CS+ or by observing an actress eating the food items representing the CS+. When additional safety information was provided via allowing direct contact with the CS+, there was a relatively strong post-extinction increase in participants' willingness-to-eat the CS+. This beneficial effect was still evident at one-week follow up. Also self-reported disgust was lower at one-week follow up when additional safety information was provided. The current findings help explain why disgust is relatively insensitive to CS-only extinction procedures, and provide helpful starting points to improve interventions that are aimed to reduce distress in disgust-related psychopathology.
A set of four reference materials for the detection and quantification of silica nanoparticles (NPs) in food was produced as a proof of principle exercise. Neat silica suspensions were ampouled, tested for homogeneity and stability, and characterized for total silica content as well as particle diameter by dynamic light scattering (DLS), electron microscopy (EM), gas-phase electrophoretic molecular mobility analysis (GEMMA), and field-flow fractionation coupled with an inductively coupled mass spectrometer (FFF-ICPMS). Tomato soup was prepared from ingredients free of engineered nanoparticles and was spiked at two concentration levels with the silica NP suspension. Homogeneity of these materials was found sufficient to act as reference materials and the materials are sufficiently stable to allow long-term storage and distribution at ambient temperature, providing proof of principle of the feasibility of producing liquid food reference materials for the detection of nanoparticles. The spiked soups were characterized for particle diameter by EM and FFF-ICPMS (one material only), as well as for the total silica content. Although questions regarding the trueness of the results from EM and FFF-ICPMS procedures remain, the data obtained indicate that even assigning values should eventually be feasible. The materials can therefore be regarded as the first step towards certified reference materials for silica nanoparticles in a food matrix.
The present study investigated the effect of aroma exposure time and aroma concentration on ad libitum intake and subjective satiation. In a within-subject study, thirty-eight unrestrained, healthy female participants (age: 18-39 years; BMI: 18·5-26·0 kg/m2) were asked to consume tomato soup during lunchtime, until they felt comfortably full. Every 30 s, the participants consumed 10 g of a bland soup base while tomato soup aroma was delivered separately through the nose via a retronasal tube that was attached to an olfactometer. This gave the impression of consuming real tomato soup. For each sip, the aroma varied in exposure time (3 and 18 s) and concentration (5 × ), resulting in four different test conditions. Ad libitum food intake and appetite profile parameters were measured. A 9 % lower food intake was observed when the participants were exposed to the condition with 18 s exposure time and a high concentration than when exposed to the other three conditions. These results indicate that changing the retronasal aroma release by aroma concentration and aroma exposure time affects food intake.
Ribonucleotide flavor enhancers such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) provide umami taste, similarly to glutamine. Japanese cuisine frequently uses soup stocks containing these nucleotides to enhance umami. We quantified 18 types of purines (nucleotides, nucleosides, and purine bases) in three soup stocks (chicken, consommé, and dried bonito soup). IMP was the most abundant purine in all umami soup stocks, followed by hypoxanthine, inosine, and GMP. The IMP content of dried bonito soup was the highest of the three soup stocks. We also evaluated the effects of these purines on extracellular and intracellular purine metabolism in HepG2 cells after adding each umami soup stock to the cells. An increase in inosine and hypoxanthine was evident 1 h and 4 h after soup stock addition, and a low amount of xanthine and guanosine was observed in the extracellular medium. The addition of chicken soup stock resulted in increased intracellular and extracellular levels of uric acid and guanosine. Purine metabolism may be affected by ingredients present in soups.
Soups and broths are popular in the world 2due to their nutrition and flavor, and flavor compounds tend to be bound by the proteins in the soups and broth, influencing the flavor perception. Thus, identification of the major proteins in meat-based broth may present a basis for understanding protein adsorption of flavor compounds. The present study aimed to identify the major proteins in traditional Chinese chicken broth and to describe the structural changes of proteins during stewing (1, 2, or 3 h). As stewing time increased, protein content in the broth significantly increased. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the macro-molecule proteins (>10 kDa) in the broth were mainly gelatin and actin and that the micro-molecule proteins fractions (<10 kDa) increased substantially. The gelatin had an ordered structure even after 3 h of stewing, as seen by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The presence of reactive sulfhydryl groups increased remarkably with stewing time. The surface hydrophobicity of the proteins significantly increased within 2 h then deceased slightly after 3 h. The intermolecular crosslinks, as indicated by dispersion index, increased remarkably, consistent with the result of atomic force microscopy (AFM), which together suggested that protein aggregation increased during stewing. These findings suggested that gelatin was the structural protein in the broth system and that intermolecular crosslinks functioned to maintain the broth system.
Micronutrient fortification can improve nutrient intake of older adults in long-term care. However, previous studies indicate that micronutrient fortification can alter food sensory attributes and, potentially, consumer liking. Others have found no effect of fortification on liking. This research investigates the effect of micronutrient powder addition on the sensory properties of selected foods commonly served in long-term care. A micronutrient powder containing 9 vitamins and 3 minerals was added to tomato soup and oatmeal at different levels. Using projective mapping, changes in sensory properties were observed with powder addition. Descriptive analysis, used to quantify these changes, showed that both the tomato soup and oatmeal had reduced flavor as the amount of added micronutrient powder increased. Oatmeal also showed changes in texture with fortification. Consumer liking scores for tomato soup showed that micronutrient addition affected liking when 100% of a daily dose was added into the soup. Addition of 50% of the daily dose did not affect liking. Oatmeal liking did not differ between fortified and unfortified samples.
To assess diarrheal risks from enteropathogenic E. coli, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium from consuming raw spinach, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.