SciCombinator

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Concept: Solvent

168

In a mixed solvent of water and ethanol, polystyrene/titanium dioxide (PSt/TiO2) composite particles of core-shell structure were prepared by hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate in the presence of cationic PSt particles or anionic PSt particles surface-treated using gamma-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. Hollow TiO2 particles were obtained through calcination of the PSt/TiO2 core-shell particles to burn off the PSt core or through dissolution of the core by tetrahydrofuran (THF). An alternative process constituted of preheating the PSt/TiO2 particles at 200[degree sign]C to allow partial crystallization followed by calcination or PSt dissolution by THF. The outcome TiO2 particles thus prepared were examined by TEM, and hollow TiO2 particles were observed. The crystalline phase structure and phase transformation were characterized, which revealed that preheating before the removal of the PSt core was useful to achieve the desired hollow TiO2 particles, and the calcination process was beneficial to the formation of anatase and rutile structures. The tests of TiO2 particles as catalyst in the photodegradation of Rhodamine B demonstrated that a much higher catalytic activity was observed with the TiO2 hollow particles prepared through calcination combined with preheating.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Enzyme, Catalysis, Solvent, Titanium dioxide, Rutile, Photocatalysis, Anatase

166

To investigate different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infection by agar well diffusion method and also antioxidant activities.

Concepts: Bacteria, Pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Antibiotic resistance, Ethanol, Acetic acid, Solvent, Clostridium difficile

156

Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental neurotoxicants-manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We postulate that even more neurotoxicants remain undiscovered. To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy. Untested chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new international clearinghouse.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Developmental biology, Educational psychology, Solvent, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Hyperactivity, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Biphenyl

147

Polygonum hydropiper is used as anti-cancer and anti-rheumatic agent in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, and cytotoxic potentials of different solvent extracts and isolated saponins. Samples were analyzed using GC, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify major and bioactive compounds. Quantitation of antiangiogenesis for the plant’s samples including methanolic extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq), saponins (Ph.Sp) were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Potato disc anti-tumor assay was performed on Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tumor inducing plasmid. Cytotoxicity was performed against Artemia salina and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line following contact toxicity and MTT cells viability assays, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of Ph.Cr, Ph.Hex, Ph.Chf, Ph.Bt, and Ph.EtAc identified 126, 124, 153, 131, and 164 compounds, respectively. In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75, and 461.53 μg/ml, respectively. In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19, and 342.53 μg/ml, respectively. In MTT cells viability assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp were most active causing 79.00, 72.50, and 71.50% cytotoxicity, respectively, at 1000 μg/ml with the LD50 of 140, 160, and 175 μg/ml, respectively. In overall study, Ph.Chf and Ph.Sp have shown overwhelming results which signifies their potentials as sources of therapeutic agents against cancer.

Concepts: Cell, Arthropod, Crustacean, Cytotoxicity, Solvent, Toxicity, Branchiopoda, Artemia salina

147

An intracellular lipase from Anoxybacillus flavithermus HBB 134 was purified to 7,4 fold. Molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be about 64 kDa. The enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 9.0 and 50 °C. It was determined that the enzyme was stable for 24 hour between pH 6.0-11.0 and at 25, 40 and 50 °C. It was found that the Km and Vmax of the enzyme for pNPL substrate were 0.084 mM and 500 U/mg respectively. Glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol enhanced the enzyme thermostability. The enzyme was found to be highly stable against acetone, ethyl acetate and diethyl ether. The enzyme activity was inhibited in the presence of PMSF, NBS, DTT and β-mercaptoethanole. Hg(2+), Fe(3+), Pb(2+), Al(3+) and Zn(2+) strongly inhibited the enzyme while Li(+), Na(+), K(+) and NH4(+) slightly activated. At least 60 % of the enzyme activity and stability were retained against sodium deoxycholate, sodium taurocholate, n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and CHAPS. The enzyme activity was elevated about 34 % in the presence of 1 % Triton X-100. The enzyme preferred long chain triacylglycerol indicating that it is a true lipase. The lipase of HBB 134 cleaved triolein at 1 or 3-position.

Concepts: Enzyme, Molecule, Ethanol, PH, Solvent, Bile acid, Diethyl ether, Cholic acid

144

Changes in lipid levels/profiles can reflect health status and diseases. Urinary lipidomics, thus, has a great potential in clinical diagnostics/prognostics. Previously, only chloroform and methanol were used for extracting lipids from the urine. The present study aimed to optimize lipid extraction and examine differential lipid classes obtained by various extraction protocols. Urine samples were collected from eight healthy individuals and then pooled. Lipids were extracted by six solvent protocols, including (i) chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v), (ii) chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v), (iii) hexane/isopropanol (3:2, v/v), (iv) chloroform, (v) diethyl ether, and (vi) hexane. Lipid profiles of the six extracts were acquired by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and some lipid classes were verified by LIFT-TOF/TOF MS/MS. The data revealed that phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) could be detected by all six protocols. However, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) were detectable only by protocols (i)-(iv), whereas phosphatidylserine (PS) was detectable only by protocols (iii)-(vi), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was detectable only by protocols (v)-(vi). In summary, we have demonstrated differential lipidome profiles yielded by different extraction protocols. These data can serve as an important source for selection of an appropriate extraction method for further highly focused studies on particular lipid classes in the human urine.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Urine, Ethanol, Lipid, Solvent, Extraction, Diethyl ether

142

A new desorption method was investigated, which does not require toxic organic solvents. Efficient desorption of organic solvents from activated carbon was achieved with an ananionic surfactant solution, focusing on its washing and emulsion action.

Concepts: Oxygen, Solubility, Carbon, Solvent, Surfactant, Solutions, Solution, Activated carbon

140

Water-Soluble Chlorophyll Proteins (WSCPs) from Brassicaceae are non-photosynthetic proteins which tetramerize upon binding four chlorophyll (Chl) molecules. The bound Chls are highly photostable, despite the lack of bound carotenoids known, in Chl-containing photosynthetic proteins, to act as singlet oxygen and Chl triplet ((3)Chl) quenchers. Although the physiological function of WSCPs is still unclear, it is likely to be related to their biochemical stability and their resistance to photodegradation. To get insight into the origin of this photostability, the properties of the (3)Chl generated in WSCPs upon illumination were investigated. We found that, unlike the excited singlet states, which are excitonic states, the triplet state is localized on a single Chl molecule. Moreover, the lifetime of the (3)Chl generated in WSCPs is comparable to that observed in other Chl-containing systems and is reduced in presence of oxygen. In contrast to previous observations, we found that WSCP actually photosensitizes singlet oxygen with an efficiency comparable to that of Chl in organic solvent. We demonstrated that the observed resistance to photooxidation depends on the conformation of the phytyl moieties, which in WSCP are interposed between the rings of Chl dimers, hindering the access of singlet oxygen to the oxidizable sites of the pigments.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Oxygen, Acetic acid, Solvent, Excited state, Singlet oxygen, Singlet state, Triplet oxygen

65

Solar-driven photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into fuels has attracted a lot of interest; however, developing active catalysts that can selectively convert CO2 to fuels with desirable reaction products remains a grand challenge. For instance, complete suppression of the competing H2 evolution during photocatalytic CO2-to-CO conversion has not been achieved before. We design and synthesize a spongy nickel-organic heterogeneous photocatalyst via a photochemical route. The catalyst has a crystalline network architecture with a high concentration of defects. It is highly active in converting CO2 to CO, with a production rate of ~1.6 × 10(4) μmol hour(-1) g(-1). No measurable H2 is generated during the reaction, leading to nearly 100% selective CO production over H2 evolution. When the spongy Ni-organic catalyst is enriched with Rh or Ag nanocrystals, the controlled photocatalytic CO2 reduction reactions generate formic acid and acetic acid. Achieving such a spongy nickel-organic photocatalyst is a critical step toward practical production of high-value multicarbon fuels using solar energy.

Concepts: Oxygen, Catalysis, Acetic acid, Solvent, Carboxylic acid, Carbon monoxide, Formic acid, Propionic acid

46

The translation of batch chemistries onto continuous flow platforms requires addressing the issues of consistent fluidic behaviour, channel fouling and high-throughput processing. Droplet microfluidic technologies reduce channel fouling and provide an improved level of control over heat and mass transfer to control reaction kinetics. However, in conventional geometries, the droplet size is sensitive to changes in flow rates. Here we report a three-dimensional droplet generating device that exhibits flow invariant behaviour and is robust to fluctuations in flow rate. In addition, the droplet generator is capable of producing droplet volumes spanning four orders of magnitude. We apply this device in a parallel network to synthesize platinum nanoparticles using an ionic liquid solvent, demonstrate reproducible synthesis after recycling the ionic liquid, and double the reaction yield compared with an analogous batch synthesis.

Concepts: Fluid dynamics, Nanotechnology, Solvent, Surface tension, Control theory, Ionic liquid, Microfluidics, Reaction rate