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Concept: Solution


BACKGROUND: Cloud computing provides an infrastructure that facilitates large scale computational analysis in a scalable, democratized fashion, However, in this context it is difficult to ensure sharing of an analysis environment and associated data in a scalable and precisely reproducible way. RESULTS: CloudMan ( enables individual researchers to easily deploy, customize, and share their entire cloud analysis environment, including data, tools, and configurations. CONCLUSIONS: With the enabled customization and sharing of instances, CloudMan can be used as a platform for collaboration. The presented solution improves accessibility of cloud resources, tools, and data to the level of an individual researcher and contributes toward reproducibility and transparency of research solutions.

Concepts: Scientific method, Research, Computer, Solution, Reproducibility, Cloud computing, Utility computing, Tool


The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.

Concepts: Ethanol, Water pollution, Benzene, Environmental remediation, Solution, Hexane, Environmental chemistry, Pentane


In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84.65 ± 0.64, 95.91 ± 11.61, and 46.39 ± 1.97 ppm, respectively. A 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test revealed that the cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast L929 cells was 93.7% at a 200 ppm UC-1 concentration that is over that anticipated in routine use. Moreover, 50 ppm UC-1 showed no significant symptoms in a rabbit ocular irritation test. In an inhalation toxicity test, treatment with 20 ppm UC-1 for 24 h showed no abnormality and no mortality in clinical symptoms and normal functioning of the lung and other organs. A ClO₂ concentration of up to 40 ppm in drinking water did not show any toxicity in a subchronic oral toxicity test. Herein, UC-1 showed favorable disinfection activity and a higher safety profile tendency than in previous reports.

Concepts: Electrochemistry, Concentration, Chemical equilibrium, Oxide, Chlorine, Solution, Parts-per notation, Chlorine dioxide


A new desorption method was investigated, which does not require toxic organic solvents. Efficient desorption of organic solvents from activated carbon was achieved with an ananionic surfactant solution, focusing on its washing and emulsion action.

Concepts: Oxygen, Solubility, Carbon, Solvent, Surfactant, Solutions, Solution, Activated carbon


Complicated cases of retinal detachment can be treated with silicone oil tamponades. There is the potential for silicone oil tamponades to have adjunctive drug releasing behaviour within the eye, however the lipophilic nature of silicone oil limits the number of drugs that are suitable, and drug release from the hydrophobic reservoir is uncontrolled. Here, a radiometric technique was developed to accurately measure drug solubility in silicone oil and measure release into culture media. All-trans retinoic acid (atRA), a lipophilic drug known to act as an anti-proliferative within the eye, was used throughout this work. Chain-end modification of polydimethylsiloxane with atRA produced a polydimethylsiloxane retinoate (PDMS-atRA), which was used as an additive to silicone oil to modify the solvent environment within the silicone oil and the distribution coefficient. Blends of PDMS-atRA and silicone oil containing different concentrations of free atRA were produced. The presence of PDMS-atRA in silicone oil had a positive effect on atRA solubility and the longevity of release in vitro. The drug release period was independent of atRA starting concentration and dependent on the PDMS-atRA concentration in the blend. A clinically relevant release period of atRA over 7 weeks from a silicone oil blend with PDMS-atRA was observed. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2018, 56, 938-946.

Concepts: Chemistry, Polymer, Solubility, Solution, Retinol, Retinoic acid, Polydimethylsiloxane, Tretinoin


Nanoscale emulsions are essential components in numerous products, ranging from processed foods to novel drug delivery systems. Existing emulsification methods rely either on the breakup of larger droplets or solvent exchange/inversion. Here we report a simple, scalable method of creating nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions by condensing water vapor onto a subcooled oil-surfactant solution. Our technique enables a bottom-up approach to forming small-scale emulsions. Nanoscale water droplets nucleate at the oil/air interface and spontaneously disperse within the oil, due to the spreading dynamics of oil on water. Oil-soluble surfactants stabilize the resulting emulsions. We find that the oil-surfactant concentration controls the spreading behavior of oil on water, as well as the peak size, polydispersity, and stability of the resulting emulsions. Using condensation, we form emulsions with peak radii around 100 nm and polydispersities around 10%. This emulsion formation technique may open different routes to creating emulsions, colloidal systems, and emulsion-based materials.

Concepts: Water, Colloid, Liquid, Surface tension, Emulsion, Surfactant, Solution, Vapor


We report a process for converting fructose, at a high concentration (15 weight %), to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), a monomer used in the production of polyethylene furanoate, a renewable plastic. In our process, fructose is dehydrated to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high yields (70%) using a γ-valerolactone (GVL)/H2O solvent system. HMF is subsequently oxidized to FDCA over a Pt/C catalyst with 93% yield. The advantage of our system is the higher solubility of FDCA in GVL/H2O, which allows oxidation at high concentrations using a heterogeneous catalyst that eliminates the need for a homogeneous base. In addition, FDCA can be separated from the GVL/H2O solvent system by crystallization to obtain >99% pure FDCA. Our process eliminates the use of corrosive acids, because FDCA is an effective catalyst for fructose dehydration, leading to improved economic and environmental impact of the process. Our techno-economic model indicates that the overall process is economically competitive with current terephthalic acid processes.

Concepts: Alcohol, Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen, Electrochemistry, Concentration, Nitrogen, Acetic acid, Solution


A constitutional isomeric library synthesized by a modular approach has been used to discover six amphiphilic Janus dendrimer primary structures, which self-assemble into uniform onion-like vesicles with predictable dimensions and number of internal bilayers. These vesicles, denoted onion-like dendrimersomes, are assembled by simple injection of a solution of Janus dendrimer in a water-miscible solvent into water or buffer. These dendrimersomes provide mimics of double-bilayer and multibilayer biological membranes with dimensions and number of bilayers predicted by the Janus compound concentration in water. The simple injection method of preparation is accessible without any special equipment, generating uniform vesicles, and thus provides a promising tool for fundamental studies as well as technological applications in nanomedicine and other fields.

Concepts: Cell membrane, Chemistry, Solution, Dendrimer


Many colloidal synthesis routes are not scalable to high production rates, especially for nanoparticles of complex shape or composition, due to precursor expense and hazards, low yields, and the large number of processing steps. The present work describes a strategy to synthesize hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) out of metal chalcogenides, based on the slow heating of a low-melting-point metal salt, an elemental chalcogen, and an alkylammonium surfactant in octadecene solvent. The synthesis and characterization of CdSe HNPs with an outer diameter of 15.6 ± 3.5 nm and a shell thickness of 5.4 ± 0.9 nm are specifically detailed here. The HNP synthesis is proposed to proceed with the formation of alkylammonium-stabilized nano-sized droplets of molten cadmium salt, which then come into contact with dissolved selenium species to form a CdSe shell at the droplet surface. In a reaction-diffusion mechanism similar to the nanoscale Kirkendall effect it is speculated that the cadmium migrates outwardly through this shell to react with more selenium, causing the CdSe shell to thicken. The proposed CdSe HNP structure comprises a polycrystalline CdSe shell coated with a thin layer of amorphous selenium. Photovoltaic device characterization indicates that HNPs have improved electron transport characteristics compared to standard CdSe quantum dots, possibly due to this selenium layer. The HNPs are colloidally stable in organic solvents even though carboxylate, phosphine, and amine ligands are absent; stability is attributed to octadecene-selenide species bound to the particle surface. This scalable synthesis method presents opportunities to generate hollow nanoparticles with increased structural and compositional variety.

Concepts: Nanoparticle, Quantum dot, Colloid, Solvent, Liquid, Cadmium, Solar cell, Solution


In this study, the degradation of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) by freely suspended and alginate-entrapped cells from the bacteria Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) A ATCC 12633 was investigated in batch cultures. The optimal conditions to prepare beads for achieving a higher TTAB degradation rate were investigated by changing the concentration of sodium alginate, pH, temperature, agitation rate and initial concentration of TTAB. The results show that the optimal embedding conditions of calcium alginate beads are 4 % w/v of sodium alginate content and 2 × 10(8) cfu ml(-1) of P. putida A ATCC 12633 cells that had been previously grown in rich medium. The optimal degradation process was carried out in pH 7.4 buffered medium at 30 °C on a rotary shaker at 100 rpm. After 48 h of incubation, the free cells degraded 26 mg l(-1) of TTAB from an initial concentration of 50 mg l(-1) TTAB. When the initial TTAB concentration was increased to 100 mg l(-1), the free cells lost their degrading activity and were no longer viable. In contrast, when the cells were immobilized on alginate, they degraded 75 % of the TTAB after 24 h of incubation from an initial concentration of 330 mg l(-1) of TTAB. The immobilized cells can be stored at 4 °C for 25 days without loss of viability and can be reused without losing degrading capacity for three cycles.

Concepts: Cell wall, Pseudomonas, Surfactant, Seawater, Solution, Pseudomonadales, Pseudomonadaceae, Pseudomonas putida