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Concept: Sodomy

360

Zika virus infection has been linked to increased risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome and adverse fetal outcomes, including congenital microcephaly. In January 2016, after notification from a local health care provider, an investigation by Dallas County Health and Human Services (DCHHS) identified a case of sexual transmission of Zika virus between a man with recent travel to an area of active Zika virus transmission (patient A) and his nontraveling male partner (patient B). At this time, there had been one prior case report of sexual transmission of Zika virus (1). The present case report indicates Zika virus can be transmitted through anal sex, as well as vaginal sex. Identification and investigation of cases of sexual transmission of Zika virus in nonendemic areas present valuable opportunities to inform recommendations to prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus.

Concepts: Human sexual behavior, Sodomy, Sex, Chlamydia infection, AIDS, Health care, Sexual intercourse, Health care provider

66

The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in the availability of sexually explicit media (SEM) on the Internet. Men who have sex with men (MSM) report near universal use of SEM. However, this widespread use of SEM among MSM may contribute to more condomless anal sex. To examine the association of viewing SEM on the Internet and the number of condomless anal sex encounters among MSM, in 2012, an online survey was conducted of 265 MSM from New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, or Washington D.C. who reported viewing SEM online in the past 3 months. Analyses were performed using negative binomial regression. Nearly all men reported viewing SEM featuring anal sex with (91%) or without (92%) condoms in the past 3 months. Neither viewing more hours of SEM per week or compulsively viewing SEM were associated with more condomless anal sex encounters. Rather, viewing a greater proportion of SEM containing condomless anal sex was associated with engaging in more condomless anal encounters (IRR = 1.25), while viewing a greater proportion of SEM containing anal sex where condoms were used was associated with fewer condomless anal sex encounters (IRR = 0.62). MSM reported that viewing SEM caused changes in their sexual fantasies, desires, and behaviors. These findings provide important insights for health policy and the design of interventions addressing SEM and condomless sex among MSM. The findings suggest that condom use by SEM performers may benefit not only actor health, but also have health implications for SEM viewers.

Concepts: Homosexuality, Sodomy, Human sexual behavior, Sexology, Internet, Chlamydia infection, Condom, Sexual intercourse

14

Sexual pleasure comes in various forms of physical play, for many it involves stimulation of the vagina, while the anus for others; some enjoy both. A recent report by Cappelletti et al.(1) shows a meta-analysis of cases describing anal trauma due to sexual fisting in human partners. This clinical article reports four cases of males diagnosed with zoophilia, and who received anal sex from animals, resulting in injuries. Surgical and psychiatric evaluations are summarized. Unusual etiology of sexual activity with animals caused peri-anal trauma in men who engaged in anal sex with dogs and farm animals. Injuries to patients who receive anal sex from animals are mechanistically similar to fisting-induced rectal damage. Among zoophiles, the mode of harm occurs through blood-engorged, interlocked penis that causes tissue lacerations upon retraction from an anus. In people experimenting with fisting, repetitive stretching within anal canal and of external sphincter causes the internal injuries. The mode of physical stimulation explains the extent of injuries in fisters vs. zoophiles: in fisting, the pressure applied by hand is controllable proximally around and within anal sphincter, while penetration by the animal penis is unpredictable and occurs within the proximal anal canal. Forensically, the findings presented in this article describe a significant mechanism of injury in fisters versus passive zoophiles. These descriptions may aid in clinically differentiating pleasurable and pathological rectal stimulation.

Concepts: Anus, Paraphilia, Human sexual behavior, Orgasm, Human sexuality, Sexual intercourse, Sodomy, Rectum

14

CDC issued interim guidance for the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus on February 5, 2016 (1). The following recommendations apply to men who have traveled to or reside in areas with active Zika virus transmission* and their female or male sex partners. These recommendations replace the previously issued recommendations and are updated to include time intervals after travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission or after Zika virus infection for taking precautions to reduce the risk for sexual transmission. This guidance defines potential sexual exposure to Zika virus as any person who has had sex (i.e., vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission. This guidance will be updated as more information becomes available.

Concepts: Sodomy, Homosexuality, Penis, AIDS, Chlamydia infection, Sex, Sexual intercourse, Male

9

We conducted a longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of depressive symptomology in iPrEx, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily, oral FTC/TDF HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in men and transgender women who have sex with men. Depression-related adverse events (AEs) were the most frequently reported severe or life-threatening AEs and were not associated with being randomized to the FTC/TDF arm (152 vs. 144 respectively OR 0.66 95 % CI 0.35-1.25). Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and a four questions suicidal ideation scale scores did not differ by arm. Participants reporting forced sex at anal sexual debut had higher CES-D scores (coeff: 3.23; 95 % CI 1.24-5.23) and were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR 2.2; 95 % CI 1.09-4.26). CES-D scores were higher among people reporting non-condom receptive anal intercourse (ncRAI) (OR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.09-1.94). We recommend continuing PrEP during periods of depression in conjunction with provision of mental health services.

Concepts: HIV, Suicide, Chlamydia infection, Epidemiology, Homosexuality, Human sexual behavior, Sodomy, Sexual intercourse

7

Apart from penile-anal intercourse, other anal sexual practices (rimming, fingering and saliva use as a lubricant for anal sex) are common among men who have sex with men (MSM). The aim of this study is to evaluate whether these anal sexual practices are risk factors for rectal gonorrhoea in MSM.

Concepts: Homosexuality, Oral sex, Sodomy, Chlamydia infection, Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior, Epidemiology, Anal sex

3

We derived an estimate of male condom effectiveness during anal sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) because the most widely used estimate of condom effectiveness (80%) was based on studies of persons during heterosexual sex with an HIV-positive partner.

Concepts: Human sexual behavior, Chlamydia infection, Homosexuality, Sodomy, AIDS, Sexual intercourse, HIV, Condom

3

Objective: Research has suggested a weak association between depression and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men (MSM). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between within-person fluctuations in depression and well-being and episodes of sexual risk-taking among HIV-positive MSM. Methods: One hundred six sexually active HIV-positive MSM living in New York City completed a structured weekly survey over 6 weeks. In Weeks 1, 3, and 5, they responded to items assessing their sexual behavior, depression, and well-being in the prior week. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between changes in levels of depression and well-being, and episodes of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Results: Within-person deviations from participants' average levels of depression and well-being were associated with the probability of risk. The probability of a risk episode was higher in weeks when depression was higher than participants' average levels (any UAI episode: odd ratio [OR] = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.00, 2.90], p < .05; serodiscordant UAI episode: OR = 2.49, 95% CI [1.31, 4.73], p < .05). The probability of a risk episode was lower in weeks when well-being was higher than participants' average levels (any UAI: OR = 0.40, 95% CI [0.22, 0.74], p < .05; serodiscordant UAI: OR = 0.42, 95% CI [0.22, 0.81], p < .05). Between-person differences in depression and well-being were not associated with risk episodes (ps > .05). Conclusion: This study is among the first to examine the association of within-person changes in depression and well-being with sexual risk behavior in a diverse sample. It contributes new evidence to literature exploring the relationship between depression and sexual risk. Future research should employ longitudinal designs to explore pathways linking within-person changes in depression with risk behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: HIV, Human sexuality, Sodomy, Risk, Anal sex, Regression analysis, Human sexual behavior, Sexual intercourse

2

This study investigated how frequently a group of young heterosexual Australians (ages 15 to 29) saw a range of behaviors represented in pornography over the previous 12 months. Participants were recruited to an anonymous online survey. Those who reported having viewed pornography in the past 12 months (n = 517) indicated how frequently they saw each of a list of 17 behaviors when they watched pornography in the past 12 months. Men’s pleasure (83%) was seen frequently by the highest proportion of young people surveyed, followed by a man being portrayed as dominant (70%). Women were more likely to report frequently seeing violence toward a woman (p < 0.01). Men were more likely to report frequently seeing heterosexual anal sex (p < 0.01), ejaculation onto a woman's face (p < 0.01), women portrayed as dominant (p < 0.01), a man being called names or slurs (p < 0.01), and violence toward a man that appears consensual (p < 0.01). Younger age was significantly associated with frequently seeing women's pleasure (p < 0.05), violence toward women which appeared consensual, and all types of violence (p < 0.01). Older age was associated with frequently seeing men's pleasure (p < 0.01) and heterosexual anal sex (p < 0.05). Our findings draw attention to the gendered ways that behaviors in pornography are seen and identified by young heterosexual audiences.

Concepts: Anal sex, Transgender, Female, Sodomy, Woman, Gender, Gender role, Homosexuality

2

Even in the presence of promising biomedical treatment as prevention, HIV incidence among men who have sex with men has not always decreased. Counseling interventions, therefore, continue to play an important role in reducing HIV sexual transmission behaviors among gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men. The present study evaluated effects of a small-group counseling intervention on psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior.

Concepts: Sodomy, Chlamydia infection, Condom, Human sexual behavior, HIV, AIDS, Sexual intercourse, Homosexuality