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Concept: Sodium hydroxide


To investigate 4 loci of 3 HSP70 genes in caustic soda production plant former workers, who have been exposed to metallic mercury vapors for a long time, and including numerous cases of chronic mercury intoxication (CMI).

Concepts: Water, Sodium, Mercury, Sodium hydroxide, Chlorine, Vapor, Mercury-vapor lamp, Lye


Foam soaps are aerosolized liquid soaps dispensed through a special pump mechanism. Currently there are no studies comparing liquid soap with foam soap in regard to efficacy of reducing hand microbial burden. In 3 separate experiments and with 2 different brands of foam soap, it was observed that nonantimicrobial foam soap was not as effective in reducing hand bacterial load as the liquid soap.

Concepts: Liquid, Sodium, Sodium hydroxide, Soap


Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS) are generated by electrolysis of NaCl solutions, and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and high environmental compatibility. The biocidal efficacy of ECAS at the point of production is widely reported in the literature, as are its credentials as a “green biocide.” Acidic ECAS are considered most effective as biocides at the point of production and ill suited for extended storage. Acidic ECAS samples were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C in glass and polystyrene containers for 398 days, and tested for free chlorine, pH, ORP and bactericidal activity throughout. ORP and free chlorine (mg/L) in stored ECAS declined over time, declining at the fastest rate when stored at 20 °C in polystyrene and at the slowest rate when stored at 4 °C in glass. Bactericidal efficacy was also affected by storage and ECAS failed to produce a 5 log(10) reduction on five occasions when stored at 20 °C. pH remained stable throughout the storage period. This study represents the longest storage evaluation of the physiochemical parameters and bactericidal efficacy of acidic ECAS within the published literature and reveals that acidic ECAS retain useful bactericidal activity for in excess of 12 months, widening potential applications.

Concepts: Acid, Electrochemistry, Effectiveness, PH, Sodium hydroxide, Chlorine, Antimicrobial, Biocide


The characterization of a spore laccase from Bacillus vallismortis fmb-103, isolated from textile industry disposal sites, is described. The activity was 6.5U/g of dry spore with ABTS as the substrate. The enzyme was quite stable at high temperature. It retained more than 90% of its initial activity after 10h at 70°C. The enzyme demonstrated broad pH stability in both acidic and alkaline conditions. There was almost no activity loss at pH 3 over an extended period of time, and the relative activity remained at 82% and 38% at pH 7 and pH 9 after 10days. NaN(3), SDS, l-cysterine, Dithiothreitol, EDTA and NaCl inhibit the enzyme activity. Triphenylmethane dyes, including malachite green, brilliant green and aniline blue were efficiently degraded by the enzyme after 24h in combination with a mediator with efficiencies of 76.84%, 96.56% and 81.17%, respectively. The reusability of spore laccase for decolorization dyes was also examined.

Concepts: Acid, Enzyme, PH, Sodium hydroxide, Base, PH indicator, Triarylmethane dyes, Hydrochloric acid


A xylanase gene (xynG1-1) from Paenibacillus campinasensis G1-1 was expressed in Bacillus megaterium MS941 and a high level of extracellular xylansae activity (304.26IU/mL) was achieved after induction with 0.5% xylose. The purified recombinant xylanase (XynG1-1R) revealed optimal activity at 60°C and pH 7.0 and retained 79% and 81% activity after incubation without substrate at 60°C, pH 5.0 and pH 8.0 for 3h, respectively. Application of XynG1-1R (15IU/g pulp) to cotton stalk pulp bleaching increased brightness by 3.65% over that of the control without the xylanase and reduced the need for chlorine compounds by 50% without loss of brightness and pulp fiber qualities. When XynG1-1R (80IU/g paper sludge) was used in combination with mixed cellulolytic enzymes, the saccharification efficiency of recycled paper sludge was increased by 10%. These results indicated that XynG1-1R is a promising candidate for various industrial applications such as biobleaching and bioenergy conversion.

Concepts: Enzyme, Sodium hydroxide, Bacillus, Chlorine, Cellulose, Paper, Bacillus megaterium, Bleaching of wood pulp


The present paper investigates the various features of NaOH aqueous solution when applied as an absorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emitted with relatively high concentration in the flue gas. The overall CO(2) absorption reaction was carried out according to consecutive reaction steps that are generated in the order of Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3). The reaction rate and capture efficiency were strongly dependent on the NaOH concentration in the Na(2)CO(3) production range, but were constant in the NaHCO(3) production step, irrespective of the NaOH concentration. The amount of CO(2) absorbed in the solution was slightly less than the theoretical value, which was ascribed to the low trona production during the reaction and the consequent decrease in CO(2) absorption in the NaOH solution. The mass ratio of absorbed CO(2) that participated in the Na(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3), and trona production reactions was calculated to be 20:17:1, respectively.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Chemical reaction, Concentration, Chemistry, Sodium hydroxide, Chlorine, Cellulose, Hydroxide


Extractable and bound proanthocyanidins and hydrolyzable tannins were characterized in Nonpareil, Carmel and Butte almond varieties from California, with n = 3 samples/variety. Bound proanthocyanidins were recovered from extracted defatted almond residue by hydrolysis with 4 N sodium hydroxide, and represented 3 to 21% of the total proanthocyanidin content among varieties. The bound proanthocyanidins were recovered primarily as monomers and dimers. In contrast, acid hydrolysis of extracted almond residue did not yield bound proanthocyanidins. Hydrolysable tannins were characterized in aqueous acetone extracts of defatted almond using two dimensional TLC, and further quantitated by HPLC following acid hydrolysis. Almond hydrolyzable tannin content was 54.7 ± 2.3 mg ellagic acid and 27.4 ± 7.3 mg gallic acid per 100 g almond among varieties. The tannin contents of Nonpareil, Carmel, and Butte almond varieties were not significantly different. Thus, bound proanthocyanidins and hydrolyzable tannins significantly contribute to almond polyphenol content.

Concepts: Sodium hydroxide, Catechin, Tannin, Proanthocyanidin, Polyphenol, Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, Pomegranate


Used batteries contain numerous metals in high concentrations and if not disposed of with proper care, they can negatively affect our environment. These metals represent 83% of all spent batteries and therefore it is important to recover metals such as Zn and Mn, and reuse them for the production of new batteries. The recovery of Zn and Mn from used batteries, in particular from Zn-C and alkaline ones has been researched using hydrometallurgical methods. After comminution and classification of elemental components, the electrode paste resulting from these processes was treated by chemical leaching. Prior to the leaching process the electrode paste has been subjected to two washing steps, in order to remove the potassium, which is an inconvenient element in this type of processes. To simultaneously extract Zn and Mn from this paste, the leaching method in alkaline medium (NaOH solution) and acid medium (sulphuric acid solution) was used. Also, to determine the efficiency of extraction of Zn and Mn from used batteries, the following variables were studied: reagents concentration, S/L ratio, temperature, time. The best results for extraction yield of Zn and Mn were obtained under acid leaching conditions (2M H(2)SO(4), 1h, 80°C).

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Chemical element, Zinc, Sodium hydroxide, Sulfuric acid, Manganese, Hydrometallurgy


In order to increase the yield of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) and to reduce their associated thrombotic risks, the influence of washing conditions on the yield, purity, and balance of coagulation factors (FII, FVII, FIX, and FX), and inhibitor proteins (PC, PS, PZ, and AT [antithrombin]) in PCCs was investigated by orthogonal testing, in which three variables (sodium citrate, NaCl, and pH) and their three levels were selected. It was found that AT yield and purity were extraordinarily low, and at lower NaCl content, the general yield, purity, and balance were higher, lower, and better, respectively; however, the results became contrary at higher NaCl. Moreover, within the investigated levels, NaCl was the first determinant for the yield except AT and the purity except FVII, PC, PS, and AT. Sodium citrate was the first determinant for AT yield and FVII, PS, and AT purity. The yield except FII, PS, and AT decreased and the purity except PC increased with increase of sodium citrate content. Just for PC purity, pH was the first determinant. The effect with pH fluctuation on the yield and purity was characteristically unobvious. The outcome undoubtedly supplies the guidance to further improve PCCs.

Concepts: Blood, Coagulation, Warfarin, Sodium hydroxide, Thrombin, Prothrombin time, Coagulation system, Antithrombin


Cleaning-in-place (CIP) for column chromatography plays an important role in therapeutic protein production. A robust and efficient CIP procedure ensures product quality, improves column life time and reduces the cost of the purification processes, particularly for those using expensive affinity resins, such as MabSelect protein A resin. Cleaning efficiency, resin compatibility, and facility compatibility are the three major aspects to consider in CIP process design. Cleaning MabSelect resin with 50mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) along with 1M sodium chloride is one of the most popular cleaning procedures used in biopharmaceutical industries. However, high concentration sodium chloride is a leading cause of corrosion in the stainless steel containers used in large scale manufacture. Corroded containers may potentially introduce metal contaminants into purified drug products. Therefore, it is challenging to apply this cleaning procedure into commercial manufacturing due to facility compatibility and drug safety concerns. This paper reports a safe, effective and environmental and facility-friendly cleaning procedure that is suitable for large scale affinity chromatography. An alternative salt (sodium sulfate) is used to prevent the stainless steel corrosion caused by sodium chloride. Sodium hydroxide and salt concentrations were optimized using a high throughput screening approach to achieve the best combination of facility compatibility, cleaning efficiency and resin stability. Additionally, benzyl alcohol is applied to achieve more effective microbial control. Based on the findings, the recommended optimum cleaning strategy is cleaning MabSelect resin with 25 mM NaOH, 0.25 M Na2SO4 and 1% benzyl alcohol solution every cycle, followed by a more stringent cleaning using 50 mM NaOH with 0.25 M Na2SO4 and 1% benzyl alcohol at the end of each manufacturing campaign. A resin life cycle study using the MabSelect affinity resin demonstrates that the new cleaning strategy prolongs resin life time and consistently delivers high purity drug products.

Concepts: Sodium chloride, Sodium, Sodium hydroxide, Chlorine, Salt, Stainless steel, Corrosion, Sodium carbonate