SciCombinator

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Concept: Sodium chloride

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This work is aimed to evaluate a method to detect the residual magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in animal tissues. Ferric ions released from MNPs through acidification with hydrochloric acid can be measured by complexation with potassium thiocyanate. MNPs in saline could be well detected by this chemical colorimetric method, whereas the detected sensitivity decreased significantly when MNPs were mixed with mouse tissue homogenates. In order to check the MNPs in animal tissues accurately, three improvements have been made. Firstly, proteinase K was used to digest the proteins that might bind with iron, and secondly, ferrosoferric oxide (Fe3O4) was collected by a magnetic field which could capture MNPs and leave the bio-iron in the supernatant. Finally, the collected MNPs were carbonized in the muffle furnace at 420[degree sign]C before acidification to ruin the groups that might bind with ferric ions such as porphyrin. Using this method, MNPs in animal tissues could be well measured while avoiding the disturbance of endogenous iron and iron-binding groups.

Concepts: Magnetic field, Hydrogen, Magnetism, Sodium chloride, PH, Chlorine, Magnetite, Ferric

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Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children’s food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children’s hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years) to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children’s intake (g) of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g), not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002), and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001). Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

Concepts: Nutrition, Allergy, Food, Sodium chloride, Taste, Sodium, Preference, Restaurant

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Aerosolized pathogens are a leading cause of respiratory infection and transmission. Currently used protective measures pose potential risk of primary/secondary infection and transmission. Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions. Our results can be applied in obtaining a broad-spectrum, airborne pathogen prevention device in preparation for epidemic and pandemic of respiratory diseases.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Bacteria, Microbiology, Virus, Infection, Influenza, Sodium chloride, Salt

47

Graphene oxide membranes show exceptional molecular permeation properties, with promise for many applications. However, their use in ion sieving and desalination technologies is limited by a permeation cutoff of ∼9 Å (ref. 4), which is larger than the diameters of hydrated ions of common salts. The cutoff is determined by the interlayer spacing (d) of ∼13.5 Å, typical for graphene oxide laminates that swell in water. Achieving smaller d for the laminates immersed in water has proved to be a challenge. Here, we describe how to control d by physical confinement and achieve accurate and tunable ion sieving. Membranes with d from ∼9.8 Å to 6.4 Å are demonstrated, providing a sieve size smaller than the diameters of hydrated ions. In this regime, ion permeation is found to be thermally activated with energy barriers of ∼10-100 kJ mol(-1) depending on d. Importantly, permeation rates decrease exponentially with decreasing sieve size but water transport is weakly affected (by a factor of <2). The latter is attributed to a low barrier for the entry of water molecules and large slip lengths inside graphene capillaries. Building on these findings, we demonstrate a simple scalable method to obtain graphene-based membranes with limited swelling, which exhibit 97% rejection for NaCl.

Concepts: Ammonia, Water, Molecule, Atom, Chemical bond, Sodium chloride, Ion, Sodium

31

Silicon analogues of the most prominent carbon nanostructures, namely, hollow spheroidals such as C60 and the fullerene family, have been unknown to date. Herein we show that discrete Si20 dodecahedra, stabilized by an endohedral guest and valence saturation, are accessible in preparative yields through a chloride-induced disproportionation reaction of hexachlorodisilane in the presence of tri(n-butyl)amine. X-ray crystallography revealed that each silicon dodecahedron contains an endohedral chloride ion that imparts a net negative charge. Eight chloro substituents and twelve trichlorosilyl groups are attached to the surface of each cluster in a strictly regioregular arrangement, a thermodynamically preferred substitution pattern according to quantum-chemical assessment. Our results demonstrate that the wet-chemical self-assembly of a complex, monodisperse Si nanostructure is possible under mild conditions starting from simple Si2 building blocks.

Concepts: Electron, Electric charge, Carbon, Sodium chloride, Ion, X-ray crystallography, Chlorine, Chloride

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Background Intravenous sodium bicarbonate and oral acetylcysteine are widely used to prevent acute kidney injury and associated adverse outcomes after angiography without definitive evidence of their efficacy. Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 5177 patients at high risk for renal complications who were scheduled for angiography to receive intravenous 1.26% sodium bicarbonate or intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride and 5 days of oral acetylcysteine or oral placebo; of these patients, 4993 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The primary end point was a composite of death, the need for dialysis, or a persistent increase of at least 50% from baseline in the serum creatinine level at 90 days. Contrast-associated acute kidney injury was a secondary end point. Results The sponsor stopped the trial after a prespecified interim analysis. There was no interaction between sodium bicarbonate and acetylcysteine with respect to the primary end point (P=0.33). The primary end point occurred in 110 of 2511 patients (4.4%) in the sodium bicarbonate group as compared with 116 of 2482 (4.7%) in the sodium chloride group (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.22; P=0.62) and in 114 of 2495 patients (4.6%) in the acetylcysteine group as compared with 112 of 2498 (4.5%) in the placebo group (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.33; P=0.88). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of contrast-associated acute kidney injury. Conclusions Among patients at high risk for renal complications who were undergoing angiography, there was no benefit of intravenous sodium bicarbonate over intravenous sodium chloride or of oral acetylcysteine over placebo for the prevention of death, need for dialysis, or persistent decline in kidney function at 90 days or for the prevention of contrast-associated acute kidney injury. (Funded by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia; PRESERVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01467466 .).

Concepts: Renal failure, Kidney, Nephrology, Renal physiology, Sodium chloride, Placebo, 3rd millennium, 25th century

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Both nitrate and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are familiar pollutants in aqueous environment. This research is focused on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and PCP from simulated contaminated groundwater using a laboratory-scale denitrification reactor packed with corncob as both carbon source and biofilm support. The reactor could be started up readily, and the removal efficiencies of nitrate and PCP reached up to approximately 98 % and 40-45 % when their initial concentrations were 50 mg N/L and 5 mg/L, respectively, after 15-day continuous operation at 10 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 25 °C. Approximately 91 % of PCP removal efficiency was achieved, with 2.47 mg/L of chloride ion release at 24 h of HRT. Eighty-two percent of chlorine in PCP removed was ionized. The productions of 3-chlorophenol and phenol and chloride ion release indicate that the reductive dechlorination reaction is a major degradation pathway of PCP under the experimental conditions.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Water pollution, Sodium chloride, Ion, Chlorine, Chloride, Hydrogen chloride

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Long lasting anticorrosive coatings for steel have been developed based on halloysite nanotubes loaded with three corrosion inhibitors: benzotriazole, mercaptobenzothiazole and mercaptobenzimidazole. The inhibitors' loaded tubes were admixed at 5-10 wt % to oil based alkyd paint providing sustained agent release and corrosion healing in the coating defects. Slow 20-30 hour release of the inhibitors in defect points caused remarkable improvement in anticorrosion efficiency of the coatings. Further time expansion of anticorrosion agents release has been achieved by formation of release stoppers at nanotube-ends with urea-formaldehyde copolymer and copper-inhibitor complexation. Corrosion protection efficiency was tested on ASTM A366 steel plates in 0.5 M NaCl solution with microscanning of corrosion current development, by microscopy inspection and studying paint adhesion. The best protection was found using halloysite / mercaptobenzimidazole and benzotriazole inhibitors. Stopper formation with urea-formaldehyde copolymer provided additional increase in corrosion efficiency due to longer release of inhibitors.

Concepts: Sodium chloride, Coating, Agent, Coatings, Passivation, Corrosion, Paint, Formulations

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Background Iodine deficiency (ID) still now represents one of the major worldwide health problems. ID is the result of insufficient dietary iodine intake. Iodine is an essential micronutrient but scarcely presents in nature. The main strategy for the correction of iodine deficiency is the fortification of table salt with iodide/iodine but Italy is far from reaching an iodized salt use higher 90% of population. Also because of the evidence for the risk on blood pressure, it is recommended to decrease the daily salt intake to less than 5g/d. An opportunity to increase the iodine intake is the possibility to introduce iodine fortification in the industrial processing foods. Aim The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a diet containing iodized foods enriched during industry processing with protected iodized salt (Presal®). Subjects and Methods The evaluation of increasing of iodine intake was assessed by measuring the urinary iodine excretion (UIE) in 30 healthy volunteers who added to own alimentary habits a basket of iodine enriched foodstuffs. Results Median UIE at baseline was 105 mcg/L, 156 mcg/L during the enriched diet and 90.5 mcg/L a week after withdrawal of enriched diet. Conclusions Stable iodized salt (Presal®) represent a good way to introduce iodine with the normal diet without increasing the normal consumption of salt for the healthy problems related to the blood pressure. The availability of stable iodized salt (Presal®) allows the preservation of iodine after cooking.

Concepts: Nutrition, Sodium chloride, Thyroid, Normal distribution, Iodine, Salt, Iodine deficiency, Edible salt