SciCombinator

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Concept: Soda-lime glass

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A total of nine tin-contained ancient glass beads were characterized by a combination of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. These glass beads dated from 1st century BC to 10th century AD were excavated from the Xinjiang and Guangxi provinces of China. Two kinds of tin-based opacifiers/colorants included crystalline cassiterite (SnO(2) ) and lead-tin yellow types II were first found in these soda lime glass beads. The tentative chronology of the tin-based opacifiers/colorants used in ancient glasses from China and the West was compared. In addition, several transition metal ions colorants were also found in these beads. The detailed study of the glassy matrices, crystalline inclusions, and the microstructural heterogeneities for these glass beads has revealed some valuable information to trace the possible making technology and provenances. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Electron, Spectroscopy, Iron, Solid, Glass, Transition metal, Centuries, Soda-lime glass

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136 glasses from the ninth-century monastery of San Vincenzo and its workshops have been analysed by electron microprobe in order to situate the assemblage within the first millennium CE glass making tradition. The majority of the glass compositions can be paralleled by Roman glass from the first to third centuries, with very few samples consistent with later compositional groups. Colours for trailed decoration on vessels, for vessel bodies and for sheet glass for windows were largely produced by melting the glass tesserae from old Roman mosaics. Some weakly-coloured transparent glass was obtained by re-melting Roman window glass, while some was produced by melting and mixing of tesserae, excluding the strongly coloured cobalt blues. Our data suggest that to feed the needs of the glass workshop, the bulk of the glass was removed as tesserae and windows from a large Roman building. This is consistent with a historical account according to which the granite columns of the monastic church were spolia from a Roman temple in the region. The purported shortage of natron from Egypt does not appear to explain the dependency of San Vincenzo on old Roman glass. Rather, the absence of contemporary primary glass may reflect the downturn in long-distance trade in the later first millennium C.E., and the role of patronage in the “ritual economy” founded upon donations and gift-giving of the time.

Concepts: Solid, Glass, Italy, Composition, Window, Mosaic, Soda-lime glass, 1st millennium

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Antimicrobial glasses are potential candidate as an additive in powder form for many different applications which makes them practically and scientifically important. In this context, incorporation of silver, zinc and copper into the powdered soda lime glass was carried out by ion exchange treatment using single and dual ion containing mediums. Investigating the effect of dual incorporation of silver-zinc and silver-copper on the ion release ability and antimicrobial activity of the glass was the motivation of this study. Considering the chemical analysis results, incorporation of silver, zinc and copper to the glass was realized after the treatment. The amount of released silver was observed to be higher than zinc and copper in aqueous environment. Unvarying pH values indicated that antimicrobial efficacies of the glasses were merely due to the incorporated ions. Silver release was significantly reduced in dual imparted glasses compared to the single silver imparted glasses. According to the antimicrobial test results, glasses showed sufficient and controlled level of ion release also showed antimicrobial activity. It was deduced that dual incorporation of silver-zinc and silver-copper into the glass lowered the silver release which was still sufficient for effective antimicrobial activity and this contributes the long term activity.

Concepts: Chemistry, Zinc, Copper, PH, Ion, Silver, Glass, Soda-lime glass

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In our recent report (ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2016, 8, 5308), Li+ ions had been successfully incorporated into the lattice of the selenized Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin film on a quartz substrate by substituting equivalent Cu+ ions, and Li+ ions was also found to have the little effect on the crystal growth and defect passivation. To further improve the cell performance of Li-doped CZTSSe devices, we conducted the same experiments on the sodium-rich soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate in this study, instead of sodium-free quartz substrate. Surprisingly, only trace amount of Li (Li/Cu molar ratio ~10-4) was detected in the final CZTSSe thin films, meanwhile the large amount of sodium was present on the surface and at the grain boundaries of the selenized thin films. A Li/Na exchange mechanism is used to explain this phenomenon. Only on the sodium-free substrate, Li+ ions can enter the CZTSSe host lattice, and doping Li+ ions on the SLG substrate is nearly identical to doping Na+ ions.

Concepts: Solid, Sodium, Materials science, Glass, Thin film, Soda-lime glass

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Electrically poled layers have been formed in soda-lime glass using graphite electrodes in air. The refractive index and thickness of the poled glass layers have been measured by the analysis of leaky optical modes. These modes are supported by the poled layer and can be determined by analysis of the optical reflectivity measured with a prism coupler arrangement. A relatively constant refractive index of ∼1.486 in the poled glass region is measured, which is ∼0.03 below the substrate index. The reflectivity data shows that the transition between poled and unpoled glass is very sharp and is consistent with ion transport models. The thickness of the poled glass region is consistent with the removal of Na+ and K+ ions from the poled region. The index and depth data are confirmed by interferometric measurements. The tensile stress in the poled glass layer is also estimated from optical birefringence measurements and is estimated to be ∼0.3  GN/m2.

Concepts: Optics, Refraction, Refractive index, Optical fiber, Measurement, Birefringence, Rainbow, Soda-lime glass

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Regularly patterned cells can clarify cellular function and are required in some biochip applications. This study examines cell patterning along microstructures and the effect of microstructural geometry on selective cellular adhesion. Particles can be autonomously assembled on a soda-lime glass substrate that is chemically patterned by immersion in a suspension of fine particles. By adopting various sizes of fine particles, we can control the geometry of the microstructure. Cells adhere more readily to microstructured fine particles than to flat glass substrate. Silica particles hexagonally packed in 5-40 μm line and space microstructures provide an effective cell scaffold on the glass substrate. Cultured cells tend to attach and proliferate along the microstructured region while avoiding the flat region. The difference in cell adhesion is attributed to their geometries, as both of the silica particles and soda-lime glass are hydrophilic related with cell adhesiveness. After cell seeding, cells adhered to the flat region migrated toward the microstructured region. For most of the cells to assemble on the scaffold, the scaffolding microstructures must be spaced by at most 65 μm.

Concepts: Enzyme, Cell biology, Geometry, Materials science, Metallurgy, Glass, Soda-lime glass, Flat glass

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Despite several decades of research there currently exists no mechanistic theory to predict colloid attachment in porous media under environmental conditions where colloid-collector repulsion exists (unfavorable conditions for attachment). It has long been inferred that nano- to micro-scale surface heterogeneity (herein called discrete heterogeneity) drives colloid attachment under unfavorable conditions. Incorporating discrete heterogeneity into colloid-collector interaction calculations in particle trajectory simulations predicts colloid attachment under unfavorable conditions. As yet, discrete heterogeneity cannot be independently measured by spectroscopic or other approaches in ways directly relevant to colloid-surface interaction. This, combined with the fact that a given discrete heterogeneity representation will interact differently with different-sized colloids as well as different ionic strengths for a given sized colloid, suggests a strategy to back out representative discrete heterogeneity by comparison of simulations to experiments performed across a range of colloid size, solution IS, and fluid velocity. This has recently been performed for interaction of carboxylate modified polystyrene latex (CML) microsphere attachment to soda lime glass at pH 6.7 with NaCl electrolyte. However, extension to other surfaces, pH values, and electrolytes is needed. For this reason, attachment of CML (0.25, 1.1 and 2.0 µm diameters) from aqueous suspension onto a variety of unfavorable mineral surfaces (soda lime glass, muscovite and albite) was examined for multiple pH values 6.7 & 8.0), fluid velocities (1.71 × 10-3 and 5.94 ×10-3 ms-1), IS (6.0 & 20 mM), and electrolytes (NaCl, CaSO4, & multivalent mixtures). The resulting representative heterogeneities (heterodomain size and surface coverage, where heterodomain refers to nano- to micro-scale attractive domains) yielded colloid attachment predictions that were compared to predictions from existing applicable semi-empirical expressions in order to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the discrete heterogeneity approach and opportunities for improvement.

Concepts: Scientific method, Nanoparticle, Prediction, Futurology, Sol-gel, Colloid, Glass, Soda-lime glass

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Silver nanoclusters were prepared in a soda-lime glass matrix through the ion-exchange (Ag(+) ↔ Na(+)) method followed by thermal annealing in an air atmosphere. The nanoscale patterning of Ag nanoclusters embedded in a soda lime glass matrix in an air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures has been investigated. During annealing, Ag(+) is reduced to Ag(0) and subsequently forms silver nanoparticles inside the glass matrix. A blue shift of 20 nm has been observed as a function of the post annealing temperature. The photoluminescence intensity is highest for an annealing temperature of 500 °C for 1 h and continuously decreases as annealing temperature increases up to 600 °C. The presence of spherical nanoparticles with a maximum particle size of 7.2 nm has been observed after annealing at 600 °C for 1 hour, which is consistent with Mie theory based results.

Concepts: Light, Nanotechnology, Silver, Electrical conductivity, Glass, Annealing, Soda-lime glass, Float glass

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This paper concerns reading the nanoscale heterogeneity thought responsible for colloid retention on surfaces in the presence of energy barriers (unfavorable attachment conditions). We back out this heterogeneity on glass surfaces by comparing mechanistic simulations incorporating discrete heterogeneity with colloid deposition experiments performed across a comprehensive set of experimental conditions. Original data is presented for attachment to soda lime glass for three colloid sizes (0.25, 1.1 and 1.95 µm microspheres) under a variety of ionic strengths and fluid velocities in an impinging jet system.. Comparison of mechanistic particle trajectory simulations incorporating discrete surface heterogeneity represented by nanoscale zones of positive charge (heterodomains), indicates that a power-law size distribution of heterodomains ranging in size from 120 to 60 nm in radius was able to explain observed retention for all conditions examined. In contrast, uniform and random placement of single-sized heterodomains failed to capture experimentally-observed colloid retention across the range of conditions examined.

Concepts: Glass, Soda-lime glass

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone loss at implants connected to abutments coated with a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles, subjected to experimental peri-implantitis. Also the aging and erosion of the coating in mouth was studied. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiments. Three implants were placed in each mandible quadrant: in 2 of them, Glass/n-Ag coated abutments were connected to implant platform, 1 was covered with a Ti-mechanized abutment. Experimental peri-implantitis was induced in all implants after the submarginal placement of cotton ligatures, and three months after animals were euthanatized. Thickness and morphology of coating was studied in abutment cross-sections by SEM. Histology and histo-morphometric studies were carried on in undecalfied ground slides. After the induced peri-implantitis: 1.The abutment coating shown losing of thickness and cracking. 2. The histometry showed a significant less bone loss in the implants with glass/n-Ag coated abutments. A more symmetric cone of bone resorption was observed in the coated group. There were no significant differences in the peri-implantitis histological characteristics between both groups of implants. Within the limits of this in-vivo study, it could be affirmed that abutments coated with biocide soda-lime-glass-silver nanoparticles can reduce bone loss in experimental peri-implantitis. This achievement makes this coating a suggestive material to control peri-implantitis development and progression.

Concepts: Bone, Osteoclast, Anatomy, Cultural studies, Glass, Coatings, Chemical processes, Soda-lime glass