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Concept: Social Sciences Citation Index


BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is known to disproportionately affect the most economically disadvantaged strata of society. Many studies have assessed the association between poverty and TB, but only a few have assessed the direct financial burden TB treatment and care can place on households. Patient costs can be particularly burdensome for TB-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty levels are high; these costs include the direct costs of medical and non-medical expenditures and the indirect costs of time utilizing healthcare or lost wages. In order to comprehensively assess the existing evidence on the costs that TB patients incur, we undertook a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, EconLit, Dissertation Abstracts, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched, and 5,114 articles were identified. Articles were included in the final review if they contained a quantitative measure of direct or indirect patient costs for treatment or care for pulmonary TB in sub-Saharan Africa and were published from January 1, 1994 to Dec 31, 2010. Cost data were extracted from each study and converted to 2010 international dollars (I$). RESULTS: Thirty articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one studies reported both direct and indirect costs; eight studies reported only direct costs and one study reported only indirect costs. Depending on type of costs, costs varied from less than I$1 to almost I$600 or from a small fraction of mean monthly income for average annual income earners to over 10 times the annual income that the average person in the income-poorest 20% of the population earns. Out of the eleven types of TB patient costs identified in this review, the costs for hospitalization, medication, transportation, and care in the private sector were largest. CONCLUSION: TB patients and households in sub-Saharan Africa often incurred high costs when utilizing TB treatment and care, both within and outside of Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (DOTS) programs. It is likely that for many households, TB treatment and care-related costs were “catastrophic” because the TB patient costs commonly amounted to 10% or more of per-capita incomes in the countries where the primary studies included in this review were conducted. Our results suggest that policies to decrease direct and indirect TB patient costs are urgently needed to prevent poverty due to TB treatment and care for those affected by the disease.

Concepts: Africa, Tuberculosis, Cost, Science Citation Index, Household income in the United States, Citation index, Social Sciences Citation Index


Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or “hedges” and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making.

Concepts: Cancer, Evaluation, Type I and type II errors, Academic publishing, Quantitative research, Science Citation Index, Citation index, Social Sciences Citation Index


Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling) and physical activity (92 studies) or sedentary behaviors (19 studies). Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14), including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste) and other health behaviors ((n = 20) smoking, dietary intake, alcohol). These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain.

Concepts: Scientific method, Longitudinal study, Epidemiology, Cross-sectional study, Bibliographic databases, Science Citation Index, Citation index, Social Sciences Citation Index


Microalga-derived biodiesel plays a crucial role in the sustainable development of biodiesel in recent years. Literature related to microalga-derived biodiesel had an increasing trend with the expanding research outputs. Based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) of the Web of Science, a bibliometric analysis was conducted to characterize the body of knowledge on microalga-derived biodiesel between 1993 and 2016. From the 30 most frequently used author keywords, the following research hotspots are extracted: lipid preparation from different microalga species, microalga-derived lipid and environmental applications, lipid-producing microalgae cultivation, microalgae growth reactor, and microalga harvest and lipid extraction. Other keywords, i.e., microalga mixotrophic cultivation, symbiotic system between microalga and other oleaginous yeast, microalga genetic engineering, and other applications of lipid-producing microalga are future focal points of research. Graphical abstract.

Concepts: Algae, Agriculture, Epistemology, Academic publishing, Science Citation Index, Citation index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Web of Science


A bibliometric analysis was completed of highly cited occupational therapy literature and authors published from 1991 to 2014 and accessible in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) databases.

Concepts: Scientific method, Mathematics, Academic publishing, Science, Linguistics, Social sciences, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index


As one of the bibliometric analysis tools, CiteSpace software was applied to quantitatively and visually evaluate global scientific documents of research on haze from 2000 to 2016. Five thousand six hundred six documents from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) of the Web of Science database were statistically analyzed and examined. The distributions on authorship, countries/territories, institutes, and keywords were generated. The amount of publications has increased nearly for the past 17¬†years. The most productive author was Li J. with 46 articles. The publications on haze research were primarily originated from the USA, China, Germany, and France. By synthetically analyzing the keywords, the dominant hot spots of haze research could be concluded as “aerosol,” “atmosphere,” “particle,” “PM2.5,"and "air quality.”

Concepts: Scientific method, Academic publishing, Science, Research, Science Citation Index, Citation index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Web of Science


A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and trends of the environmental monitoring from 1993 to 2012. Study emphases covered publication outputs, language, categories, journals, countries/territories, institutions, words, and hot issues. The results indicated that the annual output of environmental monitoring publications increased steadily. The environmental sciences and analytical chemistry were the two most common categories. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment published the most articles. The USA and the UK ranked in the top two in terms of all five indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency took the leading position of the institutions in terms of publication output. The synthesized analysis by words in title, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus provided important clues for hot issues. Researchers paid more attention on water environment monitoring than other environmental factors. The contaminants including organic contaminants, heavy metal, and radiation were most common research focuses, and the organic contaminants and heavy metal of the degree of concern were gradually rising. Sensor and biosensor played an important role in the field of environmental monitoring devices. In addition to conventional device detection method, the remote sensing, GIS, and wireless sensor networks were the mainstream environmental monitoring methods. The international organization, social awareness, and the countries' positive and effective political and policies promoted the published articles.

Concepts: Environment, Academic publishing, Environmentalism, Heavy metal music, Science Citation Index, Citation index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Wireless sensor network


Data sourcesMedline, the Science Citation Index (SCI) via Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, Global Index Medicus, Google Scholar and SLT-related reports of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Cancer Institute of the United States.Study selectionObservational studies on the use of SLT and the risk of developing OPMDs in South Asian Populations.Data extraction and synthesisDuplicate selection of studies was undertaken with two reviewers undertaking data abstraction and quality assessment independently. Risk and odds ratios were extracted or calculated for studies where possible. Meta odds ratios (mOR) were calculated using a random effects analysis.ResultsFifteen papers reporting 18 studies were included. The majority (12) were from India. All the studies were case-control designs. MOR for any OPMD with the use of any SLT product was 15.5 (95% CI; 9.9-24.2). Risk was higher in women; mOR = 22.2 (95% CI, 9.1-54.1) than men; mOR = 8.7 (95% CI, 2.1-34.8). Betel quid with tobacco carried the highest risk for OPMD, mOR = 16.1 (95% CI, 7.8-33.5).ConclusionsThe findings of our study point towards a strong association between some forms of OPMDs and SLT use in South Asia. The risk estimates are high, irrespective of controlling for confounders such as smoking and alcohol or stratification by sex, country or source of controls. There is also an exposure-response relationship between OPMDs and SLT use.

Concepts: Cancer, Google Scholar, National Cancer Institute, Asia, Science Citation Index, Citation index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Web of Science


The objective of this study was to identify the most-cited peer-reviewed combat orthopedic and extremity injury articles published during the past 70 years. Orthopedic trauma presents ongoing challenges to both US civilian and military healthcare personnel. Improvements in combat trauma and extremity injury survival and quality of life are the result of advances in orthopedic trauma research. The Web of Science (including Science Citation Index) was searched for the most cited articles related to combat orthopedic trauma, published from 1940 to 2013. The most-cited article was by Owens et al. (Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 2007; 137 citations). Between the 1990s and 2000s, there was a 256% increase in the number of highly cited publications. A total of 69% of the articles were on the topics of comorbid vascular trauma (25%), epidemiology (23%), or orthopedic trauma (21%). This study identifies some of the most important contributions to combat orthopedic trauma and research and the areas of greatest scientific interest to the specialty during the past seven decades and highlights key research that has contributed to the evolution of modern combat orthopedic traumatology.

Concepts: Present, Scientific method, Academic publishing, Physical trauma, Science Citation Index, Citation index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Web of Science


This paper examines the intellectual structure of evaluation by means of citation analysis. By using various article attributes and citation counts in Google Scholar and (Social) Science Citation Index Web of Science, we analyze all articles published in Evaluation and Program Planning from 2000 until 2012. We identify and discuss the characteristics and development of the field as reflected in the history of those citations.

Concepts: Google Scholar, Academic publishing, Project management, History, Science Citation Index, Citation index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Web of Science