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Concept: Slovakia

324

The intensification of agriculture is often associated with declining mobility and bone strength through time, although women often exhibit less pronounced trends than men. For example, previous studies of prehistoric Central European agriculturalists (~5300 calibrated years BC to 850 AD) demonstrated a significant reduction in tibial rigidity among men, whereas women were characterized by low tibial rigidity, little temporal change, and high variability. Because of the potential for sex-specific skeletal responses to mechanical loading and a lack of modern comparative data, women’s activity in prehistory remains difficult to interpret. This study compares humeral and tibial cross-sectional rigidity, shape, and interlimb loading among prehistoric Central European women agriculturalists and living European women of known behavior (athletes and controls). Prehistoric female tibial rigidity at all time periods was highly variable, but differed little from living sedentary women on average, and was significantly lower than that of living runners and football players. However, humeral rigidity exceeded that of living athletes for the first ~5500 years of farming, with loading intensity biased heavily toward the upper limb. Interlimb strength proportions among Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age women were most similar to those of living semi-elite rowers. These results suggest that, in contrast to men, rigorous manual labor was a more important component of prehistoric women’s behavior than was terrestrial mobility through thousands of years of European agriculture, at levels far exceeding those of modern women.

Concepts: Europe, Slovakia, Germany, Stone Age, Hungary, Bronze Age, Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures, Three-age system

255

Rescue excavations recovered a skeleton that resurrect the contemporary dramatic history of Austria in the 17th century as troops besieged Vienna in the second Osmanic-Habsburg war. Unique for Central Europe is the evidence of a completely preserved camel skeleton uncovered in a large refuse pit. The male individual of slender stature indicates a few but characteristic pathological changes revealing not a beast of burden but probably a valuable riding animal. Anatomical and morphometrical analyses suggest a hybrid confirmed by the ancient DNA analyses resulting in the presence of a dromedary in the maternal and a Bactrian camel in the paternal line.

Concepts: Slovakia, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Camelid, Danube, 17th century, Vienna

243

This study assessed changes in levels of ever use, perceptions of harm from e-cigarettes and sociodemographic correlates of use among European Union (EU) adults during 2012-2014, as well as determinants of current use in 2014.

Concepts: European Union, United Kingdom, Member State of the European Union, Slovakia, Malta, Treaty of Lisbon, Poland

175

To shed more light on the processes leading to crystallization of a Slavic identity, we investigated variability of complete mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups H5 and H6 (63 mtDNA genomes) from the populations of Eastern and Western Slavs, including new samples of Poles, Ukrainians and Czechs presented here. Molecular dating implies formation of H5 approximately 11.5-16 thousand years ago (kya) in the areas of southern Europe. Within ancient haplogroup H6, dated at around 15-28 kya, there is a subhaplogroup H6c, which probably survived the last glaciation in Europe and has undergone expansion only 3-4 kya, together with the ancestors of some European groups, including the Slavs, because H6c has been detected in Czechs, Poles and Slovaks. Detailed analysis of complete mtDNAs allowed us to identify a number of lineages that seem specific for Central and Eastern Europe (H5a1f, H5a2, H5a1r, H5a1s, H5b4, H5e1a, H5u1, some subbranches of H5a1a and H6a1a9). Some of them could possibly be traced back to at least ∼4 kya, which indicates that some of the ancestors of today’s Slavs (Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ukrainians and Russians) inhabited areas of Central and Eastern Europe much earlier than it was estimated on the basis of archaeological and historical data. We also sequenced entire mitochondrial genomes of several non-European lineages (A, C, D, G, L) found in contemporary populations of Poland and Ukraine. The analysis of these haplogroups confirms the presence of Siberian (C5c1, A8a1) and Ashkenazi-specific (L2a1l2a) mtDNA lineages in Slavic populations. Moreover, we were able to pinpoint some lineages which could possibly reflect the relatively recent contacts of Slavs with nomadic Altaic peoples (C4a1a, G2a, D5a2a1a1).

Concepts: Slovakia, Ukraine, Austria, Ethnic groups in Europe, Poland, Belarus, Slavic peoples, West Slavs

168

Poczai and coauthors introduce us to a Moravian Count, Imre Festetics, who formulated many principles of genetics before Mendel was born and helped establish the “research network” within which Mendel later developed his own ideas.

Concepts: Genetics, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Gregor Mendel, Moravia, Moravian Church

35

Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing 25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys.

Concepts: European Union, United States, Portugal, United Kingdom, Europe, Slovakia, Italy

32

Over the past 15 years, the European Union (EU) has spent around €80 billion on science research via Framework Programmes (FP5, FP6 and FP7). In 2014, a new programme, Horizon 2020, will likely invest another €70 billion over 6 years. Health research has been a major part: between 12% and 17% was spent on official FP5 and FP6 health research lines, although our work categorizing all EU science projects puts the health-related investment proportion nearer to 20%. Here, we compare our analyses and experiences with the European Commission’s own impact assessments and plans that inform the Horizon 2020 programme. Much is moving in the right direction but some key gaps are overlooked. We discuss four areas: red tape, what to fund, harnessing informatics and neglect of Eastern Europe.

Concepts: European Union, Europe, Slovakia, European Commission, European Parliament, European Council, European Coal and Steel Community, Seventh Framework Programme

27

The European Union (EU) is a confederation of 27 member states, the institutions of which work according to negotiated decisions. The EU has implemented similar legislation and a common market, and has adopted the same currency in most of its member states. Although financing health systems is a responsibility of the national governments, the EU has enacted the Charter of Fundamental Rights to standardize public health policies. However, for historical reasons, health policy and health expenditure is not uniform across the 27 EU member states (EU-27).

Concepts: European Union, United Kingdom, Member State of the European Union, Slovakia, Malta, Treaty of Lisbon, Poland, European Economic Area

27

OBJECTIVE: Paleoneurosurgery represents a comparatively new developing direction of neurosurgery dealing with archaeological skull and spine finds and studying their neurosurgical aspects. Trepanation of the cranial vault was a widespread surgical procedure in antiquity and the most convincing evidence of the ancient origin of neurosurgery. The present study considers a case of trepanation from the Middle Bronze Age Greece (1900- 1600 B.C.). METHODS: The skull under study belongs to skeletal material unearthed from Kirra, Delphi (Central Greece). Macroscopic examination and palpation, as well as three-dimensional Computed Tomography were used in this study. RESULTS: There is osteological evidence that the skull belongs to a male individual that died 30-35 years old. The procedure of trepanation was performed on the right parietal bone. Both macroscopic and CT evaluation demonstrate an intravital bone reaction at the edges of the aperture. Projected on the right surface of the brain, the trepanation is located on the level of the central groove. The small dimensions and the symmetrical shape of this hole give us an indication that it was made by a metal tool. CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that this paleopathological case provides valuable information about the condition of life and the pre-hippocratic neurosurgical practice in Bronze Age Greece.

Concepts: Bone, Surgery, Skull, Slovakia, Neurosurgery, Tin, Ancient Egypt, Bronze Age

26

The Eighth Central European Conference “Chemistry towards Biology” was held in Brno, Czech Republic, on August 28-September 1, 2016 to bring together experts in biology, chemistry and design of bioactive compounds; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world. The topics of the conference covered “Chemistry towards Biology”, meaning that the event welcomed chemists working on biology-related problems, biologists using chemical methods, and students and other researchers of the respective areas that fall within the common scope of chemistry and biology. The authors of this manuscript are plenary speakers and other participants of the symposium and members of their research teams. The following summary highlights the major points/topics of the meeting.

Concepts: Europe, Slovakia, Germany, Czech Republic, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Poland, Romania