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Concept: Slip


Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire’s loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

Concepts: Statistics, Data, Force, Test method, Estimation, Slip, Tire, Tread


Background and purpose - The decision on and the outcome of treatment for a slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) depend on the severity of the slip. In 2015, web-based registration was introduced into the Swedish Pediatric Orthopedic Quality (SPOQ) register. To determine whether the inclusion of commonly used methods in Sweden for radiographic measurement of SCFE (the calcar femorale [CF] method and the Billing method) is justified, we measured the inter- and intraobserver reliability of these 2 measurements. We also evaluated the internationally more commonly used head-shaft angle (HSA) method. Material and methods - 4 observers with different levels of experience with radiographic measurements analyzed 77 routine preoperative hip radiographs of children with SCFE. Inter- and intraobserver reliability was evaluated. Results - The interobserver reliability analysis for the 4 observers showed for CF an ICC of 0.99 (CI 0.97-0.99) and for Billing an ICC of 0.99 (CI 0.98-0.99). The interobserver reliability analysis for 2 observers showed for HSA an ICC of 0.98 (CI 0.97-0.99). Intraobserver reliability (2 observers) showed a mean difference below 1° for all 3 methods and with a 95% limit of agreement not exceeding ±6.8°. Interpretation - We found good reliability for both intra- and interobserver measurements of all 3 methods used for the assessment of the slip angle on routine preoperative lateral hip radiographs.

Concepts: Measurement, Radiography, Psychometrics, Systems of measurement, Slip, Slipped capital femoral epiphysis


Tires equipped with sensors, the so-called “intelligent tires”, can provide vital information for control systems, drivers and external users. In this research, tire dynamic strain characteristics in cornering conditions are collected and analysed in relation to the variation of tire working conditions, such as inflation pressure, rolling speed, vertical load and slip angle. An experimental tire strain-based prototype and an indoor tire test rig are used to demonstrate the suitability of strain sensors to establish relations between strain data and lateral force. The results of experiments show that strain values drop sharply when lateral force is decreasing, which can be used to predict tire slip conditions. As a first approach to estimate some tire working conditions, such as the slip angle and vertical load, a fuzzy logic method has been developed. The simulation and test results confirm the feasibility of strain sensors and the proposed computational model to solve the non-linearity characteristics of the tires' parameters and turn tires into a source of useful information.

Concepts: Experiment, Problem solving, Slip, Control system, Fuzzy logic, Tire, Computational linguistics, Tires


The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

Concepts: Slip, Control system, Wheel, Automobile, Fuzzy logic, Vehicle dynamics


In vehicle dynamics studies, the tire behaviour plays an important role in planar motion of the vehicle. Therefore, a correct representation of tire is a necessity. This paper describes a mathematical model for wheelchair tire based on the Magic Formula model. This model is widely used to represent forces and moments between the tire and the ground; however some experimental parameters must be determined. The purpose of this work is to identify the tire parameters for the wheelchair tire model, implementing them in a dynamic model of the wheelchair. For this, we developed an experimental test rig to measure the tires parameters for the lateral dynamics of a wheelchair. This dynamic model was made using a multi-body software and the wheelchair behaviour was analysed and discussed according to the tire parameters. The result of this work is one step further towards the understanding of wheelchair dynamics.

Concepts: Mathematics, Physics, Force, Dynamics, Slip, Mathematical model, Formula One


Hydrogels have been extensively studied for use as synthetic articular cartilage. This study aimed to investigate (1) the torsional friction contact state and the transformation mechanism of PVA/HA composite hydrogel against CoCrMo femoral head and (2) effects of load and torsional angle on torsional friction behavior. The finite element method was used to study fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel. Results show fluid loss increases gradually of PVA/HA composite hydrogel with torsional friction time, leading to fluid load support decreases. The contact state changes from full slip state to stick-slip mixed state. As the load increases, friction coefficient and adhesion zone increase gradually. As the torsional angle increases, friction coefficient and slip trend of the contact interface increase, resulting in the increase of the slip zone and the reduction of the adhesion zone. Fluid loss increases of PVA/HA composite hydrogel as the load and the torsional angle increase, which causes the decrease of fluid load support and the increase of friction coefficient.

Concepts: Bone, Cartilage, Finite element method, Hilbert space, Slip, Friction, Torsion, Stick-slip phenomenon


In mechanical engineering, it is well established that contact between the tire and the ground is a key parameter in characterizing the dynamic behavior of vehicles and an important factor in design control. Therefore, it is an important part of dynamic simulation models for vehicles, including wheelchairs. This work presents a bench test designed to experimentally monitor and measure the forces transmitted to the ground by a moving wheel. The test bench is composed of a table and a track with a fixed wheel structure and powertrain system. The table is an integrated structure that measures the longitudinal and lateral forces produced by tire contact. This table allows characterization of the tire and tests the tire under varying loads at different slip and camber angles. Additionally, the test bench can also be used to evaluate other tires, such as caster tires. The performances of the new device are illustrated, and the results show the differences between tires, which are related to the dynamic behaviors of wheelchair model. Finally, preliminary experiments performed using the test bench have shown that it is able to monitor and measure the forces generated by the contact between the tire and the ground.

Concepts: Force, Mechanical engineering, Test method, Slip, Wheel, Automobile, Tire, Camber angle


Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.

Concepts: Signal processing, Force, Microelectromechanical systems, Slip, Road, Automobile, Tire, Tires


BACKGROUND: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common hip problem in adolescents that results in a cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) deformity. Although the treatment for mild (slip angle of 0°-30°) and moderate (slip angle of 31°-60°) SCFE has historically been in situ fixation, recent studies have demonstrated impingement-related articular damage, irrespective of slip severity. Our series confirms previous reports that acetabular chondral injury occurs in mild to low-moderate (slip angle of ≤ 40°) SCFE. CASE DESCRIPTION: We retrospectively reviewed five patients who underwent arthroscopy and femoral osteoplasty within 18 months after in situ stabilization. All had labral and/or acetabular damage. LITERATURE REVIEW: Osteoarthritis rates after SCFE range from 24% to 92% at 11 to 28 years, depending on how osteoarthritis is defined. Long-term followup suggests patients have acceptable outcomes, but these studies are limited by heterogeneity and a ceiling effect from the instruments used to assess function. Although the femoral deformity remodels, it is unclear what secondary changes occur in the acetabulum. Recent investigations suggest patients are functionally limited after SCFE owing to FAI compared with controls. MRI findings and surgical reports document impingement-related joint damage after SCFE, even in the absence of symptoms. Based on this, some advocate timely correction of the cam deformity inherent in SCFE. PURPOSES AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Further study is warranted to determine whether immediate osteoplasty after in situ fixation of mild SCFE is beneficial to limit articular damage and improve long-term outcomes.

Concepts: Medical terms, Pelvis, In situ, Limited, Acetabulum, Slip