Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Slide guitar


The resonator guitar was invented in the 1920s, with one or more metal cone resonators set into the body. These additions were originally meant to amplify the sound of the acoustic guitar for performance in a band. The distinct timbre of the resonator ensured that the design survived even after electrification, especially in blues and bluegrass genres. A study of the sound radiated from different models of resonator guitars, as well as a similar standard acoustic guitar, compares spectral features to understand the unique sound of the resonator guitar.

Concepts: Steel guitar, Bluegrass music, Slide guitar, Blues, Electric guitar, Acoustic bass guitar, Guitar, Resonator guitar


The smartphone-based whole slide imaging (WSI) system represents a low-cost and effective alternative to automatic scanners for telepathology. In a previous study, the development of one such solution, named scalable whole slide imaging (sWSI), was presented and analyzed. A clinical evaluation of its iOS version with 100 frozen section samples verified the diagnosis-readiness of the produced virtual slides.

Concepts: Cytology, Psychology, Clinical trial, Slide guitar, Evaluation methods, Slide


Automated Papanicolaou test screening systems have now been available for over 25 years. Currently two automated screening systems are in widespread clinical use. These are the ThinPrep Imaging System and the FocalPoint GS Imaging System. In their current configurations, both facilitate faster screening by showing a limited number of fields of view (FOV) to cytotechnologists. The FOV are based on the use of proprietary algorithms applied to computerized images of the slide that determine the cells and cell groups with the highest likelihood of abnormality. If all of the FOV are deemed to be negative, the case can be signed out with no additional review; if one or more fields appear possibly abnormal, the entire slide must be manually screened. The United States Food and Drug Administration has ruled that for workload calculation purposes, looking at only the FOV review counts as one-half slide, potentially greatly increasing the number of slides that can be screened. However, follow-up studies of this technology have shown that screening accuracy declines when very large numbers of cases are reviewed per day. Recommendations designed to limit screening volumes to levels that do not jeopardize patient care have therefore been created. The development of fully automated screening that does not rely on human judgment remains an unrealized aspiration. This review covers the history of the development and clinical implementation of automated screening technology with descriptions of the various automated screening systems and their performance as reported in published literature.

Concepts: Slide guitar, Deviance, Slide rule, Slide, Imaging, Names of large numbers, United States, Googol


The sampling effort for detecting taxonomic distinctness of periphytic diatom communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June 2014. Samples with different sizes (microscopy glass slides) were collected at two depths of 1m and 3m. To obtain the communities with dissimilarities of <10%, 2 slide replicates were sufficient for sampling at a depth of 1m, while 4 were required for the those at a depth of 3m. The values of four taxonomic distinctness indices represented a low sensitivity to sample sizes over all exposure period ages: at a coefficient of variation of <10%, 2 and 9 slide replicates were required at a depth of 1m and 3m, respectively. We suggest that the sampling strategy of the diatoms for detecting taxonomic distinctness might be better at 1m than at a deeper layer in coastal waters.

Concepts: Yellow River, Sample, Case study, Slide, Diatom, Pacific Ocean, Sample size, Slide guitar


In biology, hemocytometers such as Malassez slides are widely used and are effective tools for counting cells manually. In a previous work, a robust algorithm was developed for grid extraction in Malassez slide images. This algorithm was evaluated on a set of 135 images and grids were accurately detected in most cases, but there remained failures for the most difficult images. In this work, we present an optimization of this algorithm that allows for 100% grid detection and a 25% improvement in grid positioning accuracy. These improvements make the algorithm fully reliable for grid detection. This optimization also allows complete erasing of the grid without altering the cells, which eases their segmentation.

Concepts: Failure, Slide guitar, White, Slide, Improve, The Grid, DNA, Grid computing


The trial results of BD FocalPoint™ GS computer assisted screening(FP) of BD SurePath(®) liquid based cervical cytology slides (SP) were published in Diagnostic Cytopathology in 2012.(1) METHOD: The FP-reviewed SP slides were compared to conventional cervical Pap smears (CON) in a split sample of 2198 routine specimens. In all 47 confirmed high grade (HG) cases, FP either selected fields of view (FOV) containing cells suspicious or diagnostic of HG (46/47), or prompted full screening of the slide (1/47) leading to detection of the HG lesion. In this study for the HG cases which were reported initially as negative (NEG) or low grade (LG), the original slides were reviewed to determine the reasons for the false negative reporting and to identify features characteristic of a HG pattern.

Concepts: GS Group, The Trial, Report, Slide guitar, Sample, Slide, Slide rule, Cytopathology


To compare the extent of potential inter-laboratory variability and the influence of different comet image analysis systems, in vivo comet experiments were conducted using the genotoxicants ethyl methanesulfonate and methyl methanesulfonate. Tissue samples from the same animals were processed and analyzed-including independent slide evaluation by image analysis-in two laboratories with extensive experience in performing the comet assay. The analysis revealed low inter-laboratory experimental variability. Neither the use of different image analysis systems, nor the staining procedure of DNA (propidium iodide vs. SYBR® Gold), considerably impacted the results or sensitivity of the assay. In addition, relatively high stability of the staining intensity of propidium iodide-stained slides was found in slides that were refrigerated for over 3 months. In conclusion, following a thoroughly defined protocol and standardized routine procedures ensures that the comet assay is robust and generates comparable results between different laboratories. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Slide guitar, Methyl methanesulfonate, In vivo, Comparison, Slide, Functional groups, Staining dyes, Experiment


This article describes the results of comparisons of digitally scanned whole slide images (WSIs) and glass microscope slides for diagnosis of tissues under peer review by the National Toxicology Program. Findings in this article were developed as a result of the data collected from 6 pathology working groups (PWGs), 1 pathology peer review, and survey comments from over 25 participating pathologists. For each PWG, 6-14 pathologists examined 10-143 tissues per study from 6- and 9-month perinatal studies and 2-year carcinogenicity studies. Overall it was found that evaluation of WSIs is generally equivalent to using glass slides. Concordance of PWG consensus diagnoses based upon review of WSIs versus glass slides ranged from 74% to 100% (median 86%). The intra- and interobserver diagnostic variation did not appear to influence the conclusions of any study. Based upon user opinions collected from surveys, WSIs may be less optimal than glass slides for evaluation of subtle lesions, large complex lesions, small lesions in a large section of tissue, and foci of altered hepatocytes. These results indicate that, although there may be some limitations, the use of WSIs can effectively accomplish the objectives of a conventional glass slide review and definitely serves as a useful adjunct to the conduct of PWGs.

Concepts: Review, Slide guitar, Tissue, Slide, Peer review, Pathology, Diagnosis, Microscope slide


BackgroundWhole slide images (WSIs) used in medical education can provide new insights into how histological slides are viewed by students. We created software infrastructure which tracks viewed WSI areas, used it during a practical exam in oral pathology and analyzed collected data to discover students¿ viewing behavior.MethodsA view path tracking solution, which requires no specialized equipment, has been implemented on a virtual microscopy software platform (WebMicroscope, Fimmic Ltd, Helsinki, Finland). Our method dynamically tracks view paths across the whole WSI area and all zoom levels, while collecting the viewing behavior data centrally from many simultaneous WSI users. We used this approach during the exam to track how all students (N =88) viewed WSIs (50 per student) when answering exam questions (with no time limit). About 74,000 records with information about subsequently displayed WSI areas were saved in the central database. Gathered data was processed and analyzed in multiple ways. Generated images and animations showed view fields and paths marked on WSI thumbnails, either for a single student or multiple students answering the same question. A set of statistics was designed and implemented to automatically discover certain viewing patterns, especially for multiple students and WSIs. Calculated metrics included average magnification level on which a WSI was displayed, dispersion of view fields, total viewing time, total number of view fields and a measure depicting how much a student was focused on diagnostic areas of a slide.ResultsGenerated visualizations allowed us to visually discover some characteristic viewing patterns for selected questions and students. Calculated measures confirmed certain observations and enabled generalization of some findings across many students or WSIs. In most questions selected for the analysis, students answering incorrectly tended to view the slides longer, go through more view fields, which were also more dispersed ¿ all compared to students who answered the questions correctly.ConclusionsDesigned and implemented view path tracking appeared to be a useful method of uncovering how students view WSIs during an exam in oral pathology. Proposed analysis methods, which include visualizations and automatically calculated statistics, were successfully used to discover viewing patterns.Virtual SlidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: Virtual SlidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:

Concepts: Slide guitar, Path, Slide, Student, View, Track and field athletics, Pathology


Digital pathology promises a number of benefits in efficiency in surgical pathology, yet the longer time required to review a virtual slide than a glass slide currently represents a significant barrier to the routine use of digital pathology. We aimed to create a novel workstation that enables pathologists to view a case as quickly as on the conventional microscope. The Leeds Virtual Microscope (LVM) was evaluated using a mixed factorial experimental design. Twelve consultant pathologists took part, each viewing one long cancer case (12-25 slides) on the LVM and one on a conventional microscope. Total time taken and diagnostic confidence were similar for the microscope and LVM, as was the mean slide viewing time. On the LVM, participants spent a significantly greater proportion of the total task time viewing slides and revisited slides more often. The unique design of the LVM, enabling real-time rendering of virtual slides while providing users with a quick and intuitive way to navigate within and between slides, makes use of digital pathology in routine practice a realistic possibility. With further practice with the system, diagnostic efficiency on the LVM is likely to increase yet more.

Concepts: Forensic pathology, Microscope, Slide guitar, Diagnosis, Slide, Cancer, Unix, Pathology