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Concept: Sleep disorders

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BACKGROUND: The recent SLEEMSA study that evaluated excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Caucasian patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) demonstrated that EDS was more frequent in patients (28%) than in healthy subjects (2%). However, the prevalence and determinants of EDS in other ethnic populations have not been reported to date. METHODS: We performed a single-hospital prospective study on patients with probable MSA. To ascertain the prevalence and determinants of EDS in Japanese MSA patients, we assessed the patients' degree of daytime sleepiness by using the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). In addition, we investigated the effects of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and abnormal periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS), which were measured by polysomnography, on the patients' ESS scores. RESULTS: A total of 25 patients with probable MSA (21 patients with cerebellar MSA and 4 patients with parkinsonian MSA) were included in this study. All patients underwent standard polysomnography. The mean ESS score was 6.2 +/- 0.9, and EDS was identified in 24% of the patients. SDB and abnormal PLMS were identified in 24 (96%) and 11 (44%) patients, respectively. The prevalences of EDS in patients with SDB and abnormal PLMS were 25% and 18%, respectively. No correlations were observed between ESS scores and the parameters of SDB or abnormal PLMS. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of EDS in Japanese patients with MSA was similar to that in Caucasian MSA patients. SDB and abnormal PLMS were frequently observed in MSA patients, although the severities of these factors were not correlated with EDS. Further investigations using objective sleep tests need to be performed.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep disorder, Parkinson's disease, Sleep apnea, Sleep medicine, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Sleep disorders

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OBJETIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of adenotonsillectomy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children by respiratory polygraphy (RP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study was conducted on children referred with clinical suspicion of OSAHS. A clinical history was taken and a general physical and ENT examination was performed on all patients. RP was performed before adenotonsillectomy and six months afterwards. Patients with craniofacial syndromes, neuromuscular disorders, and severe concomitant disease were excluded. RESULTS: We studied 150 children (67. 8% male), with a mean age of 3.74±1.80 years and a BMI of 41.70±31.75. A diagnosis of OSAHS was made if the total number of respiratory events, apneas and hypopneas, divided by the total study time (RDI) was > 4.6, using RP before undergoing adenotonsillectomy. The mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was 15.18±11.11, with 58.7% (88) of with severe OSAHS (RDI>10). There was a significant improvement in all clinical and polygraphic variables six months after adenotonsillectomy. The residual OSAHS was 14%. The preoperative RDI was significantly associated with persistent disease (P=.042). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory polygraphy is useful for monitoring the efficacy of surgical treatment by adenotonsillectomy in children with OSAHS.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Sleep disorder, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Hypopnea, Abnormal respiration, Apnea, Sleep disorders

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Background Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in the psychosis prodrome, but rarely explored in relation to psychotic experiences. Aims To investigate the relationship between specific parasomnias (nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking) in childhood and later adolescent psychotic experiences. Method The sample comprised 4720 individuals from a UK birth cohort. Mothers reported on children’s experience of regular nightmares at several time points between 2 and 9 years. Experience of nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking was assessed using a semi-structured interview at age 12. Psychotic experiences were assessed at ages 12 and 18 using a semi-structured clinical interview. Results There was a significant association between the presence of nightmares at 12 and psychotic experiences at 18 when adjusted for possible confounders and psychotic experiences at 12 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.19-2.20). The odds ratios were larger for those who reported persistent psychotic experiences. Conclusions The presence of nightmares might be an early risk indicator for psychosis.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Sleep disorder, Narcolepsy, Sleep disorders, Insomnia, Parasomnia, Night terror

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This study aims to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients receiving a mandibular advancement device (MAD) to treat obstructive sleep apnea using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). In addition, it also aims to assess the development of posterior open bite (POB).

Concepts: Medical terms, Diagnosis, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Abnormal respiration, Sleep disorders, Temporomandibular joint disorder, Mandibular advancement splint

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This study compared the predictive abilities of the STOP-Bang and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) for screening sleep clinic patients for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Forty-seven new adult patients without previous diagnoses of OSA or SDB were administered the STOP-Bang and ESS and were assigned to OSA or SDB risk groups based on their scores. STOP-Bang responses were scored with two Body Mass Index cut points of 35 and 30 kg/m(2) (SB35 and SB30). The tools' predictive abilities were determined by comparing patients' predicted OSA and SDB risks to their polysomnographic results. The SB30 correctly identified more patients with OSA and SDB than the ESS alone. The ESS had the highest specificity for OSA and SDB. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 36:84-94, 2013.

Concepts: Mass, Sleep, Sleep disorder, Body mass index, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Sleep disorders

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OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbances can impair alertness and neurocognitive performance and increase the risk of falling asleep at the wheel. We investigated the prevalence of sleep disorders among public transport operators (PTOs) and assessed the interventional effects on hypersomnolence and neurocognitive function in those diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Overnight polygraphy and questionnaire data from 101 volunteers (72 males, median age 48 range [22-64] years, 87 PTOs) employed at the Gothenburg Public Transportation Company were assessed. Treatment was offered in cases with newly detected OSA. Daytime sleep episodes and neurocognitive function were assessed before and after intervention. RESULTS: At baseline, symptoms of daytime hypersomnolence, insomnia, restless legs syndrome as well as objectively assessed OSA (apnea hypopnea index (AHI, determined by polygraphic recording)=17[5-46]n/h) were highly present in 26, 24, 10 and 22%, respectively. A history of work related traffic accident was more prevalent in patients with OSA (59%) compared to those without (37%, p<0.08). In the intervention group (n=12) OSA treatment reduced AHI by -23 [-81 to -5]n/h (p=0.002), determined by polysomnography. Reduction of OSA was associated with a significant reduction of subjective sleepiness and blood pressure. Measures of daytime sleep propensity (microsleep episodes from 9 [0-20.5] to 0 [0-12.5], p<0.01) and missed responses during performance tests were greatly reduced, indices of sustained attention improved. CONCLUSIONS: PTOs had a high prevalence of sleep disorders, particularly OSA, which demonstrated a higher prevalence of work related accidents. Elimination of OSA led to significant subjective and objective improvements in daytime function. Our findings argue for greater awareness of sleep disorders and associated impacts on daytime function in public transport drivers.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Sleep disorder, Sleep apnea, Polysomnography, Obstructive sleep apnea, Hypopnea, Sleep disorders

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ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Systemic symptoms are common in sarcoidosis and are associated with a decreased quality of life. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is often associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but may be a systemic symptom independently associated with sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between sarcoidosis and EDS. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, we compared sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score in 62 patients with sarcoidosis to 1,005 adults without sarcoidosis referred for polysomnography for suspicion of OSA. Linear regression models controlled for covariates. In a subgroup analysis of sarcoidosis patients, sleepiness scores and polysomnogram results were compared between those with normal and abnormal pulmonary function based on total lung capacity. RESULTS: EDS was more common in sarcoidosis than in controls, and sarcoidosis remained an independent predictor of increased sleepiness after controlling for covariates. Compared to controls referred for polysomnography, fewer sarcoidosis patients had clinically significant OSA. However, among sarcoidosis patients, OSA was more severe in those with abnormal lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcoidosis is independently associated with EDS. Sleepiness may contribute to the morbidity of sarcoidosis, and should be followed even after treating for potentially co-existing OSA or depression. Abnormal lung function in sarcoidosis may contribute to OSA, although the mechanisms for this are not known.

Concepts: Lung, Sleep, Sleep disorder, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Sleep medicine, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Sleep disorders

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Studies of individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have shown impairment in neurocognitive function. This study investigated the neurocognitive function in children with OSAS before and after positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. Twenty-one participants with suspected/documented OSAS were recruited, completing the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Child Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ), and/or the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Participants were administered sections of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, the Delis Kaplan Executive Functioning Scales, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children, and the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning-2nd Edition to assess neurocognitive function. The ESS and the CSHQ indicate that many participants had excessive daytime sleepiness and increased sleep-disordered breathing. Participants before therapy reflected neurocognitive deficiencies in all areas. Of the original 21 children, 4 completed the full PAP treatment and were reevaluated, demonstrating improvements in memory and motor speed. Children with OSAS reported sleep-disordered breathing, increased daytime sleepiness, and deficiencies in neurocognitive measures. Correcting these sleep impairments appeared to reduce global neurocognitive deficits while improving memory and processing speed.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep disorder, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Sleep disorders

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OBJECTIVES: Although sleep disorders have been reported to affect more than half of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the association between sleep and ADHD is poorly understood. The aims of our study were to investigate sleep-related variables in adults with ADHD and to assess if any differences exist between ADHD of the predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes. METHODS: We used the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the fatigue severity scale (FSS) to collect data on daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, and fatigue in 126 subjects (45 ADHD-I and 81 ADHD-C subjects). RESULTS: Approximately 85% of subjects reported excessive daytime sleepiness or poor sleep quality. The most common sleep concerns were initial insomnia, interrupted sleep, and feeling too hot. When examining ADHD subtype differences, ADHD-I subtypes reported poorer sleep quality and more fatigue than ADHD-C subtypes. Partial correlation analyses revealed that interrelationships between sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue differ between ADHD subtypes; in ADHD-I subtypes fatigue was associated with sleep quality, while in the ADHD-C subtypes fatigue was associated with both sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. There also appears to be a subtype×gender interaction that affects the perception of fatigue, as subjective fatigue was markedly higher in ADHD-I women than in ADHD-C women. CONCLUSION: Altogether our data indicate that the interplay of variables associated with daytime function and sleep varies between ADHD subtypes. This finding may have considerable relevance in the management and pathophysiologic understanding of ADHD, and thus lead to tailored treatments for ADHD subtypes.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Sleep disorder, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD predominantly inattentive, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Sleep disorders

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