- Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery
- Published over 5 years ago
There is increased recognition of the high prevalence of osteitic changes affecting the bony framework of the sinuses in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with or without nasal polyps. However, their grading, clinical significance, and management remain controversial.
Balloon dilation technology (BDT), also known as balloon sinuplasty, has been in clinical use since September, 2005. Prior to BDT, surgeons performed a procedure called FESS, or functional endoscopic sinus surgery, for patients with chronic sinusitis. As is true with any new technology or procedure in medicine, a debate often ensues between early adopters and mainstream practitioners. Over the past 7 years, much has been discussed, debated, and learned about BDT. What follows is a review of the origins of the BDT: the theory, technology, indications and applications; and a review of the pertinent outcomes literature. Independent of how one feels about BDT, the evidence strongly supports its safety, efficacy, and growing popularity among patients and physicians alike.
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) use in the United States to date has been limited, despite common use and demonstrated efficacy elsewhere in the world. This is largely in part due to lack of FDA-approved SLIT products, lack of established dosing and administration guidelines, and cost concerns. Several recent studies have demonstrated efficacy and safety of two sublingual grass tablets and one ragweed tablet approved by the FDA, and one sublingual ragweed liquid currently pending FDA approval. With FDA approved SLIT products, there will be numerous challenges to the allergist and patient in deciding whether to pursue SLIT or SCIT (subcutaneous immunotherapy) for allergic rhinitis. This review highlights the current state of SLIT in the United States, and expected future directions.
Headache, a nearly universal experience, remains costly, disabling, and often suboptimally managed. The most common presentations in the United States are migraine, tension-type headache (TTH) and “sinus” headache, but their extensive symptomatic overlap suggests that these conditions can be approached as variations in the same underlying pathology and managed accordingly. We use case studies of patients with varying prior diagnoses (none, migraine, TTH, and sinus headache), as well as a 4-question diagnostic screening tool, to illustrate how pharmacists can use this conceptual framework to simplify identification, management, and referral of patients with primary headache conditions of uncertain etiology.
Antrochoanal polyp is a benign polypoid lesion orginating from the maxillary sinus antrum and extending to the choana. Our aim was to assess the clinical presentation and associated rhinological findings of antrochoanal polyp patients and to evaluate results of 2 surgical treatments termed endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and ESS plus mini-Caldwell operation. The study included 46 patients. Factors such as patient age, sex, history of chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, septal deviations, chonca bullosa, turbinate hypertrophy, and the origin of the polyp were assessed. We also evaluated ESS and ESS plus mini-Caldwell surgical procedures for recurrences, synechia, bleeding, and ostium stenosis. Overall, there were 27 men and 19 women. The ESS approach was used in 26 cases, and 20 cases had combined ESS and mini-Caldwell procedures. The statistical significant difference between the 2 groups was only recurrence (P ≤ 0.05). In the ESS group, bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis were seen more than in the ESS + mini-Caldwell group, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis (P > 0.05). We thought that lower rate of recurrence found in ESS + Caldwell group in this study was associated with better visualization of the maxillary sinus walls and, therefore, easier resection of the remnant polyp. We concluded that higher incidences of bleeding and synechia were related to the mucosal damage occurring in the septum and the inferior concha due to excessive manipulation of endoscope and surgical instruments.
Treatment options for chronic rhinosinusitis with recurrent polyposis (CRSwNP) after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) are limited, and include frequent use of systemic steroids and revision surgery. A bioabsorbable, steroid-eluting implant was studied for its ability to dilate sinuses obstructed by polyps and provide localized, controlled steroid delivery to reestablish sinus patency. This study assessed the initial feasibility, safety, and efficacy of steroid-eluting implants placed in the office setting in patients who were candidates for revision ESS.
Pediatric orbital cellulitis is most often caused by ethmoid sinusitis. We present a description of 4 atypical cases of orbital cellulitis without sinusitis.
To reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, we sought to develop a clinical decision rule for the diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.
Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes.
We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of low-concentration hypochlorous acid (HOCl) nasal irrigation compared to isotonic normal saline for pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis.