SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Sinusitis

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INTRODUCTION: Systemic and topical nasal decongestants are widely used in otorhinolaryngology and general practice for the management of acute rhinosinusitis and as an adjuvant in certain forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. These products, very effective to rapidly improve nasal congestion, are sometimes available over the counter and can be the subject of misuse, which is difficult to control. The Société Française d'ORL has recently issued guidelines concerning the use of these decongestants in the doctor’s office and the operating room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The review of the literature conducted by the task force studied in detail the concepts of “rebound congestion” and “rhinitis medicamentosa” often reported in a context of misuse, particularly of topical nasal decongestants. The clinical and histopathological consequences of prolonged and repeated use of nasal decongestants have been studied on animal models and healthy subjects. RESULTS: Discordant results have been obtained, as some authors reported a harmful effect of nasal decongestants on the nasal mucosa, while others did not identify any significant changes. No study has been able to distinguish between inflammatory lesions induced by chronic rhinosinusitis and lesions possibly related to the use of nasal decongestants. DISCUSSION: The task force explained the rebound congestion observed after stopping nasal decongestant treatment by return of the nasal congestion induced by rhinosinusitis and rejected the concept of rhinitis medicamentosa in the absence of scientific evidence from patients with rhinosinusitis. CONCLUSION: Nasal decongestants are recommended for the management of acute rhinosinusitis to reduce the consequences of often disabling nasal congestion. They are also recommended during rhinoscopic examination and for preparation of the nasal mucosa prior to endonasal surgery.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Topical, Mucus, Pseudoephedrine, Nasal congestion, Topical decongestant, Rhinitis medicamentosa, Decongestant

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BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated the bitter taste receptor T2R38 upregulates sinonasal mucosal innate defense in response to gram-negative quorum-sensing molecules through increased nitric oxide production and mucociliary clearance. T2R38 was initially identified in the quest to understand the variability in bitter taste perception to the compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and demonstrated to have polymorphisms generating diplotypes dividing people into PTC supertasters, heterozygotes (with variable PTC detection), and nontasters. We have further demonstrated that sinonasal epithelial cultures derived from supertasters significantly increase innate defenses in response to gram-negative quorum-sensing molecules compared with sinonasal cultures derived from heterozygotes and nontaster individuals. Based on this data, we hypothesize that supertasters are less likely to require sinus surgery compared with heterozygous or nontasters and that supertasters have improved surgical outcomes. METHODS: Banked sinonasal tissue samples from patients who had undergone primary functional endoscopic sinus surgery at the University of Pennsylvania or the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center were genotyped for T2R38 and compared to the expected population distribution. Necessity for additional antibiotic therapy following the postoperative healing time frame was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were included in the study. Only 1 supertaster was identified (expected 5.6, p < 0.043). Additionally, 14 heterozygous and 13 nontaster patients were identified. CONCLUSION: This pilot study investigating the genetics of the bitter taste receptor T2R38 in the context of primary sinonasal surgery demonstrates supertaster patients are less likely to need surgical intervention for chronic rhinosinusitis. Additional study is necessary to ascertain postsurgical outcomes.

Concepts: Surgery, Sinusitis, Taste, Nitric oxide, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Supertaster, Phenylthiocarbamide, TAS2R38

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BACKGROUND: Transnasal cannulation of the natural ostium in patients with an intact uncinate process is complicated by the lack of direct visualizationof the ostium. Accuracy of transnasal dilation of the maxillary ostium was evaluated for a malleable-tipped balloon device that was bent to specific angles for avoiding the fontanelle during cannulation.METHODS: Transnasal cannulation and dilation of 42 cadaver maxillary sinus ostia was attempted by 6 surgeons including 3 with very limited clinicalexperience using the study device. All physicians received procedure training including the technique to shape the balloon device into the recommended 135 degree maxillary configuration. Tissue dissection was prohibited. Canine fossa trephination and transantral endoscopy were used to evaluate cannulation and dilation outcomes. Physician operators were blinded to transantral images and results were documented by two observers.RESULTS: Appropriate transnasal cannulation and dilation of natural maxillary sinus ostia occurred in 92.9% (39/42) of attempts. Two failures emanated from procedural deviations. In one deviation, the bend angle was changed to 90 degrees and the device tip did not cannulate the ostium. In the second, the device was passed through a preexisting hole in the uncinate and cannulated the natural ostium. A third failure occurred when the device was passed through the fontanelle creating a false lumen.CONCLUSION: Using recommended procedural techniques and a malleable-tipped balloon device, newly trained and experienced physicians alike can perform uncinate-preserving transnasal cannulation and dilation of the maxillary ostium with a high rate of success.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Physician, Failure, Angle, Maxillary sinus, Cadaver, Dissection, Uncinate process of ethmoid bone

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As a general observation, wet hair in cold weather seems to be a predisposing factor for sinus headache and posterior eye pain. We offer a mechanism through selective brain cooling system for this observation. Selective brain cooling (SBC) is a mechanism to protect brain from hyperthermia. Components of SBC are head skin and upper respiratory tract (nose and paranasal sinuses). Cool venous blood from head skin and mucous membranes of nose and paranasal sinuses drains to intracranial dural sinuses and provide brain cooling. Brain will be cooled very much when head skin exposes to hypothermia such a condition like wet hair in cold weather. We suggest that, in order to reduce brain cooling activity, some alterations are being occurred within paranasal sinuses. For this purpose, sinus ostiums may close and mucus may accumulate to reduce air within sinuses. Also there may be some vasomotor changes to prevent heat loss. We hypothesize that this possible alterations may occur within paranasal sinuses as a control mechanism for brain temperature control during exposure of head skin to hypothermia. Paranasal sinuses may also cool brain directly by a very thin layer of bone separates the posterior ethmoid air sinus from the subarachnoid space and only thin plates of bone separate the sphenoidal sinuses from internal carotid artery and cavernous sinuses. Because of their critical role in the SBC, posterior ethmoid air sinus and sphenoidal sinuses may be affected from this alterations more than other paranasal sinuses. This situation may cause posterior eye pain. This mechanism can explain why a person who expose to hypothermia with wet hair or a person who don’t use a beret or a hat during cold weather gets sinus headache and posterior eye pain. These symptoms could lead to an incorrect diagnosis of sinusitis.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Internal carotid artery, Common carotid artery, Respiratory system, Cerebrospinal fluid, Mucus, Upper respiratory tract infection, Headache

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Background: Concha bullosa is the pneumatisation of intranasal conchae (usually the middle turbinate, and rarely the inferior or superior turbinate); however, the term is generally used to describe aeration of the middle concha. Superior concha bullosa is a rare finding, and only a few cases of inferior concha bullosa have been reported in the medical literature. When symptomatic, concha bullosa may cause various problems including nasal congestion, headache, postnasal drip, anosmia and, sometimes, epiphora. Methodology: Computed tomography, following history-taking and physical examination, is a valuable tool in diagnosing turbinate pneumatisation. This article presents a very rare case with bilateral triple conchae pneumatisations. Results: The symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment options for cases of multiple concha bullosa are discussed. The surgical interventions performed in the presented case are briefly described. Conclusion: The presented patient had pneumatisation of all six turbinates. In such cases, we propose that this condition be termed ‘conchae bullosis’ rather than ‘conchae bullosa’, in a similar fashion to the use of nasal polyposis as the plural form of nasal polyp.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Medical imaging, English language, Case, Physical examination, Medical history, Concha bullosa, Grammatical number

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The relationship between allergy and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains ill-defined and controversial. The association between the 2 is unclear, making an evidence-based decision of whether to evaluate and treat allergies in CRS patients difficult. The purposes of this systematic review are to (1) examine the relationship between allergy and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), (2) examine the same for allergy and CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), and (3) recommend evaluation and treatment based on the evidence.

Concepts: Asthma, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Sinusitis, Allergy, Rhinorrhea

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Balloon dilation may offer a more expedient and cost-effective treatment method compared with traditional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic maxillary atelectasis. We sought to demonstrate the feasibility of balloon dilation of the maxillary os as a treatment modality for patients with chronic maxillary atelectasis by investigating the short-term outcomes in a retrospective case series of 4 patients representing 5 sinuses treated between 2011 and 2013. All sinuses were successfully balloon dilated without complications. Follow-up ranged from 1 week to 4 months. Aeration of the treated sinuses without restenosis was confirmed by postoperative endoscopy, sinus computed tomography, or both. All patients reported subjective symptomatic improvement. Balloon dilation of the maxillary os may be a feasible treatment option for maxillary sinus atelectasis. Longer follow-up and a larger study sample will be needed to validate the safety of this technique and determine the rate of restenosis.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Retrospective, Maxillary sinus, Endoscopy, Case series, Dilation, Cervical dilation

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In this report, we discuss the case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with a case of chronic maxillary sinusitis.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Maxillary sinus

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AIM:: To present first experience of the use N-butyl cyanoacrylate with metacryloxisulfolane (Glubran 2) synthetic surgical glue, in the nonsurgical closure of oroantral communication (OAC). MATERIAL AND METHODS:: Two OACs, created after the exodontia of tooth 27 in 2 female patients, were sealed and closed with Glubran 2 surgical glue and monitored OACs, until the epithelization of the sockets was ended successfully. Two months postclosure of OACs, the sealed OACs were evaluated on the panoramic image and Water’s view radiography. RESULTS:: The extraction wounds with OACs were monitored until 23rd and 25th postinterventional days, when epithelization of socket ended successfully. On the panoramic image and Water’s view radiography, there were no radiological signs of maxillary sinus pathoses. CONCLUSION:: Glubran 2 can be successfully applied in the closure of OAC from 3 to 5 mm in diameter.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Maxillary sinus, Metric space, Panorama

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Allergic rhinitis is the most common atopic disorder seen in ENT clinics. It is diagnosed by history, physical exam and objective testing. Patient education, environmental control measures, pharmacotherapy, and allergen-specific immunotherapy are the cornerstones of allergic rhinitis treatment and can significantly reduce the burden of disease. Current treatment guidelines include antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, oral and intranasal decongestants, intranasal anticholinergics, intranasal cromolyn, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. In the mechanism of allergic rhinitis, histamine is responsible for major allergic rhinitis symptoms such as rhinorrhea, nasal itching and sneezing. Its effect on nasal congestion is less evident. In contrast, leukotrienes result in increase in nasal airway resistance and vascular permeability. Antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The published literature about combined antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists in mono- or combination therapy is reviewed and presented.

Concepts: Asthma, Sinusitis, Allergy, Mast cell, Rhinitis, Leukotriene, Montelukast, Leukotriene antagonist