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Concept: Sinhalese people


The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender-wise diversity of digital dermatoglyphic traits in a sample of Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka.

Concepts: Sri Lanka, Tamil language, Colombo, Sinhalese people


Located only a short distance off the southernmost shore of the Greater Indian subcontinent, the island of Sri Lanka has long been inhabited by various ethnic populations. Mainly comprising the Vedda, Sinhalese (Up- and Low-country) and Tamil (Sri Lankan and Indian); their history of settlements on the island and the biological relationships among them have remained obscure. It has been hypothesized that the Vedda was probably the earliest inhabitants of the area, followed by Sinhalese and Tamil from the Indian mainland. This study, in which 271 individuals, representing the Sri Lankan ethnic populations mentioned, were typed for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 (HVS-1) and part of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS-2), provides implications for their settlement history on the island. From the phylogenetic, principal coordinate and analysis of molecular variance results, the Vedda occupied a position separated from all other ethnic people of the island, who formed relatively close affiliations among themselves, suggesting a separate origin of the former. The haplotypes and analysis of molecular variance revealed that Vedda people’s mitochondrial sequences are more related to the Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils' than the Indian Tamils' sequences. MtDNA haplogroup analysis revealed that several West Eurasian haplogroups as well as Indian-specific mtDNA clades were found amongst the Sri Lankan populations. Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.112.

Concepts: DNA, Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Tamil language, Tamil people, Jaffna, Sinhalese people


Mental health problems among women of reproductive age group contribute to 7% of Global Burden of Diseases of women of all ages. Purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of antenatal depression among pregnant women in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, and to explore the factor structure of EPDS.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Uterus, Obstetrics, Fertility, Sri Lanka, Tamil language, Sinhalese people


Youth suicide rates are rising worldwide, including Sri Lanka, where 46.5/100,000 among 15-19yrs was reported in 1986. Identifying high risk adolescents is vital. Dearth of trained professionals, demands an instrument utilizable by non-psychiatrists. Such was not available in Sinhalese. Adolescent Suicide Assessment Protocol (ASAP-20) and its' manual was translated and validated to Sri Lankan adolescents.

Concepts: Sri Lanka, Maldives, Tamil language, Colombo, Lanka, Sri, Sinhalese people, Vijaya of Sri Lanka


The objective of this study was to translate the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire for female lower urinary tract symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) into Sinhala and validate the Sinhala translation for use in clinical practice.

Concepts: Sri Lanka, Tamil language, Colombo, Lanka, Sinhala language, Sinhalese people


Rubber tapping involves carrying heavy loads, navigating rough terrain, and using sharp tools. However, little is known about occupational injury among this vulnerable working population.

Concepts: Sri Lanka, Coconut, Colombo, Sri, Sinhalese people, Galle


HLA-B(∗)1502 is known as a biomarker for carbamazepine (CBZ) induced Steven-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (SJS/TEN) in some Asian populations. Hence United States Federal Drug Administration (USFDA) recommends HLA-B(∗)1502 screening for Asian and other populations with a high prevalence of HLA-B(∗)1502, prior to the administration of carbamazepine. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of HLA-B(*)1502 in a cohort of Sri Lankans. We observed an overall prevalence of 4.3% (4/93) among 93 Sri Lankans comprised of 32 Sinhalese, 30 Sri Lankan Tamils and 31 Moors. The allele was detected in 3 [9.3%; 3/32] Sinhalese, 0 [0%; 0/30] Sri Lankan Tamils and in 1 [3%; 1/31] Moor. The overall prevalence of HLA-B(*)1502 in this population was close to that of other populations where the USFDA has recommended HLA-B(*)1502 screening. A larger study is required to confirm these findings, especially among the Sinhalese where the frequency appears to be high.

Concepts: Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu, South India, Tamil language, Tamil people, Jaffna, Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Sinhalese people


The reproductive and sexual health of adolescents is an important health concern and a focus of global attention. In Sri Lanka, a lack of understanding about adolescent reproductive and sexual health needs is a matter of national concern. A survey was undertaken to examine the sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of school going adolescents in Sri Lanka. A random sample of schools was selected from one district. Data were collected by a self-completion questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 90%. 2020 pupils (26% boys, 74% girls) aged 16-19 years (mean = 16.9) participated, the majority Sinhalese (97%). Most reported a good parent-child relationship (88%). A minority (34%) discussed sexual issues with parents. Health professionals were the preferred source of sexual information (32%) rather than parents (12.5%) or friends (5.6%). Less than 1% demonstrated satisfactory sexual and reproductive knowledge levels. 1.7% were sexually active (30 boys vs 5 girls), the majority with same age partners. 57% used contraception at first intercourse. There is an imperative to address the lack of sexual and reproductive knowledge. A minority of school going adolescents become sexually active. These individuals are potentially vulnerable and services need to be developed to meet their needs.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior, Sri Lanka, Tamil language, Colombo, Lanka, Sri, Sinhalese people


This study was conducted to translate the Pain Catastrophizing Scale into and adapt it to the Sinhala language and to examine its psychometric properties and factor structure in pain patients and healthy adults in Sri Lanka.

Concepts: Psychometrics, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Tamil language, Colombo, Lanka, Sinhala language, Sinhalese people


Populations affected by violent conflicts often withstand threats to their security as well as threats to their livelihoods. Their response to the former threats nontrivially affects their response to the latter threats, and vice versa. This paper examines the interplay between protection and livelihood strategies using a sample of households selected from the Anuradhapura district of Sri Lanka. The fieldwork for this study was completed in 2008, producing evidence that the protection and livelihood strategies employed by households affected by the protracted conflict in Sri Lanka are interlaced. In addition, the research discovered that Muslim and Sinhalese households largely responded to the protracted conflict in ways that are unique to their ethnic group. Certain vulnerabilities that impinge on protection and certain opportunities that support livelihoods are shown to be ethnicised. Hence, the final livelihood outcome, which is defined narrowly here as the household’s income, also appears to be ethnicised.

Concepts: Employment, Sri Lanka, South Asia, Tamil language, Household income in the United States, Sinhalese people, Protracted social conflict, North Central Province, Sri Lanka