SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Simón Bolívar

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Chagas disease (CD) profoundly affects the social and emotional dimensions of patients' lives, and disproportionately impacts poor, marginalized populations in Latin America. Biomedical treatment for CD fails to reach up to 99% of the people affected, and in any case seldom addresses the emotional health or socioeconomic conditions of patients. This study examines patient strategies for coping with CD in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Concepts: Infectious disease, United States, Spanish language, Bolivia, Andrés de Santa Cruz, Simón Bolívar

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I examine the intersection of politics and aesthetics in a public hospital in Caracas, Venezuela in the first years of the twenty-first century. Given Venezuela’s longstanding embrace of physical enhancement and the contradictions of the medical values of cosmetic surgery with those of Bolivarian socialism, the changing surgical practices at a well-established public site offer a significant case for considering how different actors negotiate the dialectics of care. In the face of increasing resource shortages, negotiations of aesthetic care contributed to tensions in the clinical encounter as patients creatively pushed Bolivarian policies to support their pursuits of aesthetic self-improvement.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Venezuela, Simón Bolívar, Hugo Chávez, Bolivarian Revolution

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To evaluate the clinical presentation, treatment outcome and follow-up of all patients managed with sinonasal papillomas (SP), at a tertiary private otorhinolaryngology centre in Caracas (Venezuela).

Concepts: Medicine, Venezuela, Caracas, Simón Bolívar

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The catalog of type specimens of freshwater fishes deposited in the Colección de Peces Dulceacuícolas del Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (IAvH-P) is presented. This list includes 483 specimens in 65 lots representing 11 holotypes and 472 paratypes of 48 nominal species. Corrections, additions, and updating of information in the original descriptions are included in individual remarks for each catalog number entry and a gallery of pictures of holotypes or paratypes of each nominal species is also presented, which supplements some original descriptions lacking figures of their respective types. An online version of the catalog is available at http://humboldt.org.co/en/servicios/colecciones-biologicas/catalogo-de-tipos.

Concepts: Biology, Botany, Freshwater fish, Charles Darwin, Type, Alexander von Humboldt, Simón Bolívar

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Few studies have examined exposure to drug use and the lag between exposure and use. This paper estimates prevalence of opportunity to use a substance, for use, and for use given an opportunity to use among a sample of Venezuelan adolescents. Several covariates on the opportunity to use and the transition to use are also examined. Findings show that lifetime prevalence of substance use among Venezuelan adolescents increases dramatically and more closely resembles rates among US and European samples when having had an opportunity to use was taken into account. A majority of youth who transitioned to use did so the same year exposure occurred, and females had a shorter time difference compared to males. Covariates primarily predicted exposure rather than having used after controlling for exposure, and their effects varied by substance. Implications for prevention efforts are discussed.

Concepts: Drug addiction, Latin America, Venezuela, Caracas, Simón Bolívar, Francisco de Miranda, Guaicaipuro, Rómulo Gallegos

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The Thorium molten-salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid-fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a (252)Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the (252)Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator.

Concepts: Neutron, Nuclear fission, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear technology, Neutron source, Subcritical reactor, Simón Bolívar, Thorium fuel cycle

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Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.

Concepts: Spanish language, Brazil, South America, Chile, Peru, Venezuela, Andean Community of Nations, Simón Bolívar

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Child health is significantly poorer in homes with intimate partner violence (IPV). However, a possible link to parental provision of childcare has been neglected.

Concepts: Domestic violence, Spanish language, Brazil, Andes, Peru, Mestizo, Andean Community of Nations, Simón Bolívar

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We have read with great interest the Comments related to the article entitled “Prevalence of marijuana use among university 20 students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru” and appreciate the readers' feedback [1]. […].

Concepts: Spanish language, Brazil, Student, Andes, Peru, Mestizo, Andean Community of Nations, Simón Bolívar

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We have read and analyzed the article entitled “Prevalence of marijuana use among university students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru”. We propose some objective points which could enhance the internal validity of the study (i.e., we suggest to report participation proportions).

Concepts: Spanish language, Brazil, Student, Andes, Peru, Mestizo, Andean Community of Nations, Simón Bolívar