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Concept: Significant figures


Introduction: Raypex 6 is an electronic apex locator (EAL) that has not yet been tested in vivo. The purpose of this in vivo study was to compare the accuracy of two EALs: the Dentaport ZX and the Raypex 6. Methods: The study involved 36 straight single-rooted teeth. A 10-K file was advanced until the EAL detected the major foramen. The file was fixed in a replaceable pattern of light-cured composite. The apical part of each canal was trimmed to expose the file tip. The distances from the file tips to the major foramen were measured. Results: Wilcoxon’s signed Rank test found no significant differences between the Dentaport ZX and Raypex 6 in terms of their abilities to detect the major foramen (P = .52) The Dentaport ZX was accurate 82.35% of the time to ± 0.5 mm and 97.05% of the time to ± 1 mm, whereas the Raypex 6 was accurate 88.22% of the time to ± 0.5 mm and 100% of the time to ± 1 mm. Conclusions: No statistically significant differences were observed between the performance of the Dentaport ZX and Raypex 6 EALs under the in vivo clinical conditions used in this study.

Concepts: Statistics, Measurement, Statistical significance, In vivo, Psychometrics, Major, Significant figures, Military rank


We have developed and implemented a sequence identification algorithm (inSeq) that processes tandem mass spectra in real-time using the mass spectrometer’s (MS) onboard processors. The inSeq algorithm relies on accurate mass tandem MS data for swift spectral matching with high accuracy. The instant spectral processing technology takes ∼16 ms to execute and provides information to enable autonomous, real-time decision making by the MS system. Using inSeq and its advanced decision tree logic, we demonstrate (i) real-time prediction of peptide elution windows en masse (∼3 min width, 3,000 targets), (ii) significant improvement of quantitative precision and accuracy (~3x boost in detected protein differences), and (iii) boosted rates of posttranslation modification site localization (90% agreement in real-time vs. offline localization rate and an approximate 25% gain in localized sites). The decision tree logic enabled by inSeq promises to circumvent problems with the conventional data-dependent acquisition paradigm and provides a direct route to streamlined and expedient targeted protein analysis.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Mass spectrometry, Peptide, Accuracy and precision, Tandem mass spectrometry, Significant figures


Finding work is a top priority for most people; however, this goal remains out of reach for the majority of individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) who remain on benefits or are unemployed. Supported employment (SE) programs aimed at returning people with a severe mental illness to work are successful; however, they still leave a significant number of people with severe mental illness unemployed. Cognitive deficits are commonly found in SMI and are a powerful predictor of poor outcome. Fortunately, these deficits are amenable to treatment with cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) that significantly improves cognition in SMI. CRT combined with SE significantly increases the likelihood of individuals with severe mental illness obtaining and staying in work. However, the availability of CRT is limited in many settings.

Concepts: Psychology, Epidemiology, Randomized controlled trial, Cognition, Mind, Mental illness, Outcome, Significant figures


Cardiac output (CO) monitoring is a valuable tool for the diagnosis and management of critically ill patients. In the critical care setting, few studies have evaluated the level of agreement between CO estimated by transthoracic echocardiography (CO-TTE) and that measured by the reference method, pulmonary artery catheter (CO-PAC). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of CO-TTE relative to CO-PAC and the ability of transthoracic echocardiography to track variations in CO, in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Cardiology, Heart, Pulmonary artery, Accuracy and precision, Significant figures


The study of functional genomics, particularly in non-model organisms, has been dramatically improved over the last few years by the use of transcriptomes and RNAseq. While these studies are potentially extremely powerful, a computationally intensive procedure, the de novo construction of a reference transcriptome must be completed as a prerequisite to further analyses. The accurate reference is critically important as all downstream steps, including estimating transcript abundance are critically dependent on the construction of an accurate reference. Though a substantial amount of research has been done on assembly, only recently have the pre-assembly procedures been studied in detail. Specifically, several stand-alone error correction modules have been reported on and, while they have shown to be effective in reducing errors at the level of sequencing reads, how error correction impacts assembly accuracy is largely unknown. Here, we show via use of a simulated and empiric dataset, that applying error correction to sequencing reads has significant positive effects on assembly accuracy, and should be applied to all datasets. A complete collection of commands which will allow for the production of Reptile corrected reads is available at and as File S1.

Concepts: Scientific method, Bioinformatics, Critical thinking, Molecular biology, Research, Accuracy and precision, Cultural studies, Significant figures


Custom-made pencils containing reagents dispersed in a solid matrix were developed to enable rapid and solvent-free deposition of reagents onto membrane-based fluidic devices. The technique is as simple as drawing with the reagent pencils on a device. When aqueous samples are added to the device, the reagents dissolve from the pencil matrix and become available to react with analytes in the sample. Colorimetric glucose assays conducted on devices prepared using reagent pencils had comparable accuracy and precision to assays conducted on conventional devices prepared with reagents deposited from solution. Most importantly, sensitive reagents, such as enzymes, are stable in the pencils under ambient conditions, and no significant decrease in the activity of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase stored in a pencil was observed after 63 days. Reagent pencils offer a new option for preparing and customizing diagnostic tests at the point of care without the need for specialized equipment.

Concepts: Enzyme, Glucose, Accuracy and precision, Microfluidics, Drawing, Significant figures, Horseradish peroxidase, Pencil


An article recently published in this journal (Cox, Devine, Bischmann, & Hyde, 2016) questioned the validity of existing research on the accurate judgment of sexual orientation from photographs of faces. Specifically, those authors reported a confound in their stimuli whereby the photos of sexual minorities (gay men and lesbians) were of higher quality than the photos of heterosexuals. Based on this finding, they concluded that the accuracy in judging sexual orientation from faces demonstrated in the broader literature is an artifact of stimulus quality differences. Here, we addressed this claim by systematically testing the numerous photo sets that we have used in 61 studies documenting accurate judgments of sexual orientation from facial cues published since 2007. Contrary to their claim, the overwhelming majority of studies (93%) showed no significant differences in photo quality according to sexual orientation. Of those that did show differences, most revealed that heterosexual targets' photos were actually of higher quality than sexual minority targets' photos - opposite of what Cox et al. found. In addition, we highlight additional research using stimuli equated for quality differences overlooked in the recent article by Cox et al., lending further support to the conclusion that sexual orientation is legible from multiple sensory cues.

Concepts: Sexual orientation, Minority, Homosexuality, Bisexuality, Judgment, Heterosexuality, Photograph, Significant figures


Statin intolerance is a barrier to effective lipid-lowering treatment. A significant number of patients stop prescribed statins, or can take only a reduced dose, because of adverse events attributed to the statin, and are then considered statin-intolerant.

Concepts: Statin, Significant figures


Statin therapy is a proven effective treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, a significant number of patients cannot tolerate statins. This study was conducted to review treatment strategies for patients intolerant to statin therapy with a focus on intermittent statin dosing.

Concepts: Statin, Hyperlipidemia, Ezetimibe, Cleveland, Cleveland Clinic, Significant figures, Intolerance


Persistent poor sleep is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. Sleep is considered the main method of recovery in athletes; however, studies report that a significant number of athletes are getting insufficient sleep. The purpose of this study was to assess the sleep profiles of elite Gaelic athletes and to compare wellbeing in those with poor sleep and those with good sleep.

Concepts: Sleep, Cultural studies, Significant figures