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Concept: Sigmund Freud


Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term that has been applied over the years to a group of children with motor disability and related service requirements. The first conceptions of cerebral palsy and our knowledge about aetiology and pathogeny allow us to assume that cerebral palsy existed in the Ancient World. Although there is lack of detailed medical descriptions from before the 19th century, mentions to cerebral palsy can be found in representational art, literary sources and paleopathology; however, because of the poor medical documentation, the diagnosis of cerebral palsy must remain a more or less well-justified supposition. In the Ancient World, the first medical description of cerebral palsy was made by Hippocrates in his work “Corpus Hippocraticum”. Concrete examples and definitions of cerebral palsy, however, did not emerge until the early 19th century with observations by William John Little; thus, Little was the first personality to intensely engage cerebral palsy. Towards the end of the 19th century, two more personalities emerged, adding to the historical hallmarks of cerebral palsy: William Osler and Sigmund Freud. The significant developments that have followed since then are all due to the contributions of these three personalities in the field of cerebral palsy.

Concepts: Personality psychology, Physician, Cerebral palsy, Sigmund Freud, 19th century, Hippocrates, Carl Jung, Hippocratic Corpus


When people see a life-sized virtual body (VB) from first person perspective in virtual reality they are likely to have the perceptual illusion that it is their body. Additionally such virtual embodiment can lead to changes in perception, implicit attitudes and behaviour based on attributes of the VB. To date the changes that have been studied are as a result of being embodied in a body representative of particular social groups (e.g., children and other race). In our experiment participants alternately switched between a VB closely resembling themselves where they described a personal problem, and a VB representing Dr Sigmund Freud, from which they offered themselves counselling. Here we show that when the counsellor resembles Freud participants improve their mood, compared to the counsellor being a self-representation. The improvement was greater when the Freud VB moved synchronously with the participant, compared to asynchronously. Synchronous VB movement was associated with a much stronger illusion of ownership over the Freud body. This suggests that this form of embodied perspective taking can lead to sufficient detachment from habitual ways of thinking about personal problems, so as to improve the outcome, and demonstrates the power of virtual body ownership to effect cognitive changes.

Concepts: Psychology, Personality psychology, Perception, Sense, Mind, Grammatical person, Sigmund Freud, Illusion


Abstract One requirement for psychotherapy research is an accurate assessment of therapeutic interventions across studies. This study compared frequency and depth of therapist interventions from a dynamic perspective across four studies, conducted in four countries, including three treatment arms of psychodynamic psychotherapy, and one each of psychoanalysis and CBT. All studies used the Psychodynamic Intervention Rating Scales (PIRS) to identify 10 interventions from transcribed whole sessions early and later in treatment. The PIRS adequately categorized all interventions, except in CBT (only 91-93% categorized). As hypothesized, interpretations were present in all dynamic therapies and relatively absent in CBT. Proportions of interpretations increased over time. Defense interpretations were more common than transference interpretations, which were most prevalent in psychoanalysis. Depth of interpretations also increased over time. These data can serve as norms for measuring where on the supportive-interpretive continuum a dynamic treatment lies, as well as identify potentially mutative interventions for further process and outcome study.

Concepts: Therapy, Psychometrics, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, Psychodynamic psychotherapy, Psychodynamics


Suffering is commonly seen as an unconscious effort to alleviate painful feelings of guilt. However, suffering also aims at averting loss of ego functions and hence loss of mental stability. This second function of suffering is discussed in the light of Freud’s observations of characters wrecked by success and Weiss’s ideas about mutual love as a threat to mental stability. Hawthorne’s portrayal of Arthur Dimmesdale in The Scarlet Letter (1850), biographical material about the author, material from his diaries, and material from a psychotherapy case and an analysis illustrate the function of suffering to preserve mental stability in the face of heightened success and happiness. Hawthorne, it is argued, intuitively grasped this function of suffering in his novel.

Concepts: Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, Ego psychology, Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter, Carl Jung


Propelled from the inner circle after publishing The Trauma of Birth (1924), Otto Rank jettisoned Freud’s science of knowing because it denied the intelligence of the emotions. Transforming therapy from knowing to being-in-relationship, Rank invented modern object-relations theory, which advocates continual learning, unlearning and relearning: that is, cutting the chains that bind us to the past. Separating, no matter how anxiety-provoking, from outworn phases of life, including previously taken-for-granted ideologies and internalized others, is essential for self-leadership. In 1926, Rank coined the terms “here-and-now” and “pre-Oedipal.” By 1926, Rank had formulated a model of “creative willing”-self-leadership infused with the intelligence of the emotions-as the optimal way of being-in-relationship with others.

Concepts: Psychology, Sociology, Science, Intelligence, Creativity, Sigmund Freud, Emotional intelligence, Otto Rank


Drawing from Elisabeth Young-Bruehl’s psychological and psychodynamic study of prejudice as a starting point, this paper explores the phenomenon of childism-namely, the prejudice again children-from a Rankian psychodynamic perspective. Young-Bruehl argues that childism is comparable to prejudices such as anti-Semitism, sexism, and racism, and serves such purposes as the elimination of an individual’s personhood, sexual exploitation, and the erasure of identity. Adding to Young-Bruehl’s analysis of the social and psychological causes and effects of prejudice against children, this paper will examine the nature and dangers of childism explicit and implicit in the writings of Otto Rank. We will examine the development of creative will in child maturation-a development that childist forms of prejudice may obstruct, inhibit, and compromise. We will see that Young-Bruehl’s foundational writing on childism echoes many of the observations and writings of Otto Rank in regard to the prejudice against children, and how such prejudice deeply diminishes, undermines, and fractures our unfolding lives and creative will in a shared world.

Concepts: Writing, Developmental psychology, Discrimination, Creativity, Sigmund Freud, Otto Rank, Carl Rogers


This article is about the Freud-Frink-Brill relationship, certain events in the history of psychoanalysis in the United States in the years 1919 to 1925, and some speculative explanations for these events. It is not a critique of psychoanalytic theory or practice.

Concepts: United States, Psychotherapy, Unconscious mind, Psychoanalysis, Jacques Lacan, Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, Psychoanalytic theory


This interview, with Professor Daniel Stern conducted on February 16, 2012, by Dr. John Talbott, reviews the field of infant psychiatry, the history of which goes back more than 100 years. Sigmund Freud, then Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, Donald Winnicott, and, finally, Margaret Mahler, all psychoanalysts, influenced its development. Direct observation of very young infants and their mothers began in the latter half of the 20th century, and the subsequent course shifted through the influence of developmental psychologists and ethologists. This review concludes with Dr. Stern’s predictions and fears about future directions of the field.

Concepts: Psychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, Ego psychology, Melanie Klein, Controversial discussions


Otto Rank (1884-1939) served as Freud’s closest partner in the psychoanalytic movement from 1906 to 1926. From 1923 on, Rank, initially with Ferenczi, focused on making analysis more therapeutic, emphasizing current experience in the session over historical exploration and interpretation. Rank settled on will as a missing factor, and wrote extensively about it after the break with Freud in 1926, when he moved to Paris. He emphasized the here-and-now, redefined “resistance” as a positive aspect of counter-will, and suggested a time limit for analysis. Ousted from analytic circles in 1930, he eventually moved to New York, continuing to treat patients and teach until his unexpected death at 55 in 1939. After decades of obscurity, Rank has gained readers and therapists whose orientation is interpersonal, client-centered, relational, humanistic, or existential. His influence on post-Freudian ego-psychology is finally being acknowledged as are his ideas about creativity, will, life-fear and death-fear, guilt, and ethics.

Concepts: Psychology, 2008, Psychotherapy, Humanistic psychology, Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, Otto Rank, 2007


Abstract This article examines the practice of organization consultation using the adaptive leadership approach through a case example of a large system intervention in a peacemaking project in Nepal. The authors define core activities of the Adaptive Leadership model and provide parallels to psychodynamic group psychotherapy theory and technique that demonstrate how group therapists can apply their expertise to larger systems and arenas beyond the group therapy office.

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Psychotherapy, Sigmund Freud, Psychodynamics, Psychiatric treatments, Drama therapy, Jacob L. Moreno