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Concept: Sigmoidoscopy

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BACKGROUND: Validation of administrative data is important to assess potential sources of bias in outcome evaluation and to prevent dissemination of misleading or inaccurate information. The purpose of the study was to determine the completeness and accuracy of endoscopy data in several administrative data sources in the year prior to colorectal cancer diagnosis as part of a larger project focused on evaluating the quality of pre-diagnostic care. Methods: Primary and secondary data sources for endoscopy were collected from the Alberta Cancer Registry, cancer medical charts and three different administrative data sources. 1672 randomly sampled patients diagnosed with invasive colorectal cancer in years 2000-2005 in Alberta, Canada were included. A retrospective validation study of administrative data for endoscopy in the year prior to colorectal cancer diagnosis was conducted. A gold standard dataset was created by combining all the datasets. Number and percent identified, agreement and percent unique to a given data source were calculated and compared across each dataset and to the gold standard with respect to identifying all patients who underwent endoscopy and all endoscopies received by those patients. Results: The combined administrative data and physician billing data identified as high or higher percentage of patients who had one or more endoscopy (84% and 78%, respectively) and total endoscopy procedures (89% and 81%, respectively) than the chart review (78% for both). Conclusions: Endoscopy data has a high level of completeness and accuracy in physician billing data alone. Combined with hospital in/outpatient data it is more complete than chart review alone.

Concepts: Evaluation, Colorectal cancer, Physician, Data, Data set, Endoscopy, Sigmoidoscopy, Percentage point

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Low adenoma detection rates (ADR) are linked to increased postcolonoscopy colorectal cancer rates and reduced cancer survival. Devices to enhance mucosal visualisation such as Endocuff Vision (EV) may improve ADR. This multicentre randomised controlled trial compared ADR between EV-assisted colonoscopy (EAC) and standard colonoscopy (SC).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Improve, Randomized controlled trial, Colorectal cancer, Ulcerative colitis, Colorectal polyp, Sigmoidoscopy, Polyp

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The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is involved in immune function and cell growth. We evaluated the association between genetic variation in JAK1 (10 SNPs), JAK2 (9 SNPs), TYK2 (5 SNPs), suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 (2 SNPs), SOCS2 (2 SNPs), STAT1 (16 SNPs), STAT2 (2 SNPs), STAT3 (6 SNPs), STAT4 (21 SNPs), STAT5A (2 SNPs), STAT5B (3 SNPs), STAT6 (4 SNPs) with risk of colorectal cancer. We used data from population-based case-control studies (colon cancer n = 1555 cases, 1,956 controls; rectal cancer n = 754 cases, 959 controls). JAK2, SOCS2, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B, and STAT6 were associated with colon cancer; STAT3, STAT4, STAT6, and TYK2 were associated with rectal cancer. Given the biological role of the JAK/STAT-signaling pathway and cytokines, we evaluated interaction with IFNG, TNF, and IL6; numerous statistically significant associations after adjustment for multiple comparisons were observed. The following statistically significant interactions were observed: TYK2 with aspirin/NSAID use; STAT1, STAT4, and TYK2 with estrogen status; and JAK2, STAT2, STAT4, STAT5A, STAT5B, and STAT6 with smoking status and colon cancer risk; JAK2, STAT6, and TYK2 with aspirin/NSAID use; JAK1 with estrogen status; STAT2 with cigarette smoking and rectal cancer. JAK2, SOCS1, STAT3, STAT5, and TYK2 were associated with colon cancer survival (hazard rate ratio (HRR) of 3.3 95% CI 2.01,5.42 for high mutational load). JAK2, SOCS1, STAT1, STAT4, and TYK2 were associated with rectal cancer survival (HRR 2.80 95% CI 1.63,4.80). These data support the importance of the JAK/STAT-signaling pathway in colorectal cancer and suggest targets for intervention. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Immune system, Gene expression, Cancer, Signal transduction, Colorectal cancer, Colon, Sigmoidoscopy, STAT protein

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To estimate the prevalence of underlying adenocarcinoma of the colon in patients in whom acute diverticulitis was diagnosed at computed tomography (CT) and to compare that to the prevalence of colon cancer in the general population.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Colorectal cancer, Ulcerative colitis, Colon, Sigmoidoscopy, Diverticulitis, Diverticulosis

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Cetuximab-containing chemotherapy is known to be effective for KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer; however, it is not clear whether cetuximab-based preoperative chemoradiation confers an additional benefit compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cancer, Oncology, Colorectal cancer, Colon, Sigmoidoscopy, Cetuximab, Panitumumab

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To compare the Medicare population cost of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening of average risk individuals by CT colonography (CTC) vs. optical colonoscopy (OC).

Concepts: Cancer, Colorectal cancer, Ulcerative colitis, Colonoscopy, Medical tests, Colorectal polyp, Sigmoidoscopy, Polyp

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Abstract Objective. Colonoscopy is the method of choice for examining patients with lower gastrointestinal symptoms. The procedure is, however, in many cases, associated with pain and impaired compliance. Magnetic endoscopic imaging (MEI) generates a three-dimensional image of the colonoscope on a computer screen which may enable the colonoscopist to avoid looping, and consequently improve patient satisfaction. Material and methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 200 outpatients referred to colonoscopy at Østfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway, were included. Patients were randomized to either the standard arm (using fluoroscopy on demand, n = 100), or the MEI arm (n = 100). End points were time to cecum, subjective pain experiences, and use of sedation or analgesics. Results. Out of a total of 200 patients, 54% were men. However, no significant differences between the groups according to gender were found. Fluoroscopy was applied in 23% of the cases in the standard group. Use of MEI was associated with decreased time to cecum (p < 0.05), decreased pain scores (Visual Analogue Scale, p < 0.05), decreased need of analgesia (p < 0.01), and decreased amount of administered midazolam and pethidin (p < 0.05 in both). Conclusions. MEI during colonoscopy was associated with decreased pain and less on-demand requests for sedation and analgesia. In addition, the use of MEI reduced the cecal intubation time. Consequently the implementation of magnetic endoscopic imaging in the endoscopy suits may be beneficial, particularly in the clinically difficult cases.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Colonoscopy, Opioid, Bronchoscopy, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Endoscopy, Sigmoidoscopy, Cecum

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Real-time optical diagnosis of colorectal polyps may lead to substantial time and cost savings and could potentially reduce complications associated with polypectomy. We prospectively assessed the utility of a novel narrow-band imaging (NBI) system with dual focus magnification (DF) in differentiating colorectal polyps in consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy.

Concepts: Optics, Colorectal cancer, Ulcerative colitis, Colon, Colonoscopy, Colorectal polyp, Sigmoidoscopy, Focal length

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We would like to congratulate Gill et al(1) for their audit of the current management of malignant colorectal polyps in the North of England, but we. have some reservations regarding the conclusions drawn. An audit is essentially a ‘review of current practice’ with retrospective data collection and analysis. If it involves several hospitals, the number of uncontrolled variables and various different forms of management introduce marked heterogeneity. Any conclusions from such data need to be interpreted with caution. Their study includes data collected from nine hospitals and ‘over 300’ endoscopists in the Northern region between April 2006 and July 2010. The authors do not provide details of the level of experience or case volume of those performing the endoscopic polypectomies, but they comment on significant differences in the management of the polyps including the initial endoscopic approach and the proportion of polyps managed surgically between the centres. This was independent of the size of the unit. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Surgery, England, Term, The Current, All rights reserved, Sigmoidoscopy, Copyright, The Unit