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Concept: Sigmoid colon


Intussusception is uncommon in adults. To our knowledge, synchronous colocolic intussusceptions have never been reported in the literature. Here we described the case of a 59-year-old female of synchronous colocolic intussusceptions presenting as acute abdomen that was diagnosed by CT preoperatively. Laparotomy with radical right hemicolectomy and sigmoidectomy was undertaken without reduction of the invagination due to a significant risk of associated malignancy. The final diagnosis was synchronous adenocarcinoma of proximal transverse colon and sigmoid colon without lymph nodes or distant metastasis. The patient had an uneventful recovery. The case also emphasizes the importance of thorough exploration during surgery for bowel invagination since synchronous events may occur.

Concepts: Large intestine, Sigmoid colon, Lymph node, Colectomy, Ascending colon, Peritoneum, Cancer, Medical terms


Defecatory disorders are very common complications after left hemicolectomy and anterior rectal resection. These disorders seem related primarily to colonic denervation after the resection. To evaluate the real benefits of inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) preservation via laparoscopic left hemicolectomy performed for diverticular disease in terms of reduced colonic denervation and improved postoperative intestinal functions, a randomized, single-blinded (patients) controlled clinical trial was conducted.

Concepts: Superior rectal artery, Sigmoid colon, Inferior mesenteric artery, Clinical trial, Epidemiology, Diverticulitis, Colectomy, Colon


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the length of the sigmoid colon and sigmoid mesocolon in living subjects and fresh cadavers. METHODS: The subjects for the study were consecutive 50 living subjects undergoing abdominal surgeries via midline incision and 50 fresh cadavers undergoing a medicolegal postmortem at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. RESULTS: The study showed that the mean length of the sigmoid colon in living subjects was 48.9 ± 1.3 cm (range 30.5-65 cm) while the mean length of the sigmoid colon in cadaver subjects was 50.1 ± 1.6 cm (range 34.5-67.8 cm) and this was not statistically significantly different. Two patterns of the shape of the sigmoid loop were identified: dolichomesocolic and brachymesocolic pattern. In about 80 % of subjects in both groups, dolichomesocolic-type was seen. The gender analysis showed that males had statistically significant longer sigmoid colon (P = 0.040). The dimension of sigmoid colon significantly increased with age of the patients in cadaver subjects and in both sexes (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The study concluded that the lengths of sigmoid colon are not different in living and cadaver subjects but are relatively longer than measurement from western countries. The lengths of sigmoid colon and mesocolon also increases with age and this may possibly be the anatomical basis for the frequent occurrence of sigmoid volvulus and failed colonoscopy among the older population in our environment.

Concepts: Osun State, Sigmoid colon, Statistics, Rectum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Mesentery, Peritoneum, Sigmoid mesocolon


This study aims to characterize the in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of normal colorectal tissues and to assess distinctive biomolecular variations of different anatomical locations in the colorectum for cancer diagnosis. We have developed a novel 785 nm excitation fiber-optic Raman endoscope that can simultaneously acquire in vivo fingerprint (FP) spectra (8001800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber (HW) Raman spectra (28003600 cm-1) from the subsurface of colorectal tissue. We applied the FP/HW Raman endoscope for in vivo tissue Raman measurements of various normal colorectal anatomical locations (i.e. ascending colon (n=182), transverse colon (n=249), descending colon (n=124), sigmoid (n=212), and rectum (n=362)) in 50 subjects. Partial least squares (PLS) - discriminant analysis (DA) was employed to evaluate the inter-anatomical variability. The normal colorectal tissue showed a subtle inter-anatomical variability in molecular constituents (i.e., proteins, lipids and water content) and could be divided into three major clusterings: (1) ascending colon, transverse colon, (2) descending colon, and (3) sigmoid and rectum. The PLS-DA multiclass algorithms were able to identify different tissue sites with varying sensitivities (SE) and specificities (SP) (ascending colon: SE: 1.10%, SP: 91.02, transverse colon: SE: 14.06%, SP: 78.78, descending colon: SE: 40.32%, SP: 81.99, sigmoid: SE: 19.34%, SP: 87.90, rectum: SE: 71.55%, SP: 77.84). The inter-anatomical molecular variability was orders of magnitude less than neoplastic tissue transformation. Further PLS-DA modeling on in vivo FP/HW tissue Raman spectra yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 88.8% (sensitivity: 93.9% (93/99); specificity 88.3% (997/1129) for colorectal cancer detection. This work discloses that inter-anatomical Raman spectral variability of normal colorectal tissue is subtle compared to cancer tissue; and the simultaneous FP/HW Raman endoscopic technique has promising potential for real-time, in vivo diagnosis of colorectal cancer at the molecular level.

Concepts: Colorectal cancer, Rectum, Peritoneum, Colon, Sigmoid colon, Ascending colon, Sigmoidoscopy, Cancer


Diversity and composition of microbial communities was compared across the 13 major sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and rectum) in two captive populations of American bison (Bison bison), one of which was finished on forage, the other on grain.

Concepts: Colon, Peritoneum, Cecum, Sigmoid colon, Digestion, Ascending colon, Midgut, Digestive system


Metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) is a heterogeneous disease with differing outcomes and clinical responses and poor prognosis. CRCs can be characterised by their primary tumour location within the colon. The left-sided colon, derived from the hindgut, includes the distal third of the transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. The right-sided colon, derived from the midgut, includes the proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon, ascending colon and caecum. Sometimes, the rectum is described separately, despite originating from the hindgut, and in many clinical series, the left-sided colon includes only tumours within and distal to the splenic flexure. Differences in the microbiome, clinical characteristics and chromosomal and molecular characteristics have been reported between the right and left side of the colon, regardless of how this is defined. There is now strong evidence from clinical studies in patients with mCRC for the prognostic effect of primary tumour location. The impact of primary colonic tumour location on response to treatment is now under investigation in a large number of clinical studies in patients with mCRC. In this review, we summarise the microbiome, clinical, chromosomal and molecular differences associated with the primary location of CRC. We present an overview of the proven prognostic impact of primary tumour location for patients with mCRC and discuss emerging data for the predictive impact of primary tumour location on clinical outcome.

Concepts: Descending colon, Peritoneum, Colorectal cancer, Sigmoid colon, Hindgut, Ascending colon, Cancer, Colon


A previously well 76-year-old woman underwent elective colonoscopy for the investigation of persistent rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. The procedure was prolonged owing to the presence of a redundant sigmoid colon, and considerable manipulation was required in order to advance to the cecum. After the procedure, sudden abdominal distention developed, with signs of peritoneal irritation. A chest radiograph obtained while the patient was in the upright position showed a tension pneumoperitoneum with medial displacement of the liver (Panel A, arrow), raising concern about torsion of vessels in the porta hepatis. A radiograph of the abdomen showed Rigler’s sign - air . . .

Concepts: Gallbladder, Abdomen, Ascending colon, Sigmoid colon, Abdominal pain, Rectum, Peritoneum, Liver


Single-incision plus one port surgery (SILS + 1) provides the advantages of being minimally invasive and easier to perform than pure single-incision laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning curve (LC) for SILS + 1 for sigmoid colon and upper rectal cancer.

Concepts: Minimally invasive, Cancer, Sigmoid colon, Laparoscopic surgery, Learning curve, Single port access surgery, Surgery, Rectum


The present case report details a rare case of osteoporosis as the initial manifestation of Crohn’s disease (CD). A 43-year-old male was referred to the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (Changsha, China) for further examination of low back pain (LBP) without digestive symptoms. Bone mineral density (BMD) analysis indicated osteoporosis, particularly in the lumbar spine. Endoscopy revealed an inflamed and strictured ileocecal valve with less inflammation in the ascending, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum, compatible with CD, which was in accordance with the appearance of an abdominal computed tomography scan. Duodenal-balloon enteroscopy indicated segmental ulceration and stricture in the jejunum, in accordance with CD. The patient was diagnosed with CD following examination. It was suspected that osteoporosis may be an extra-intestinal manifestation of CD. Steroids and biological agents were prescribed in sequence. LBP and BMD rapidly improved following treatment, and inflammatory markers returned to normal after 1.5 years of treatment. According to this case, osteoporosis with unknown causes should be considered as a possible sign of small intestinal CD.

Concepts: Ulcerative colitis, Sigmoid colon, Rectum, Inflammation, Spinal disc herniation, Small intestine, Osteoporosis, Crohn's disease


Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy (LVMR) has gained widespread acceptance for the management of complete rectal prolapse (CRP). However, there have been concerns considering its use in patients with a redundant sigmoid colon. This study was conducted to evaluate the anatomical and functional results following LVMR, particularly in cases of CRP with a redundant sigmoid colon.

Concepts: Rectal prolapse, Surgery, Sigmoid colon, Rectum