SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Shoulder

170

Aseptic loosening of all-polyethylene glenoid components remains a limiting factor in achieving long-term implant survival in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). This study prospectively evaluated the functional and radiographic outcomes of patients undergoing TSA with a novel, porous, tantalum-backed glenoid component, with a minimum 2 years of follow-up.

Concepts: Vector space, Shoulder

169

Changes in muscle activities are commonly associated with shoulder impingement and theoretically caused by changes in motor program strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess for differences in latencies and deactivation times of scapular muscles between subjects with and without shoulder impingement. Twenty-five healthy subjects and 24 subjects with impingement symptoms were recruited. Glenohumeral kinematic data and myoelectric activities using surface electrodes from upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA) and anterior fibers of deltoid were collected as subjects raised and lowered their arm in response to a visual cue. Data were collected during unloaded, loaded and after repetitive arm raising motion conditions. The variables were analyzed using 2 or 3 way mixed model ANOVAs. Subjects with impingement demonstrated significantly earlier contraction of UT while raising in the unloaded condition and an earlier deactivation of SA across all conditions during lowering of the arm. All subjects exhibited an earlier activation and delayed deactivation of LT and SA in conditions with a weight held in hand. The subjects with impingement showed some significant differences to indicate possible differences in motor control strategies. Rehabilitation measures should consider appropriate training measures to improve movement patterns and muscle control.

Concepts: Muscle, Humerus, Shoulder, Deltoid muscle, Clavicle, Glenohumeral joint, Scapula, Serratus anterior muscle

151

The aims of this study were to determine the survival of anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty with uncemented metal-backed (MB) glenoid components with a polyethylene (PE) insert in primary osteoarthritis, to assess the reasons for revision surgery, and to identify patients and diagnostic factors that influence failure rates.

Concepts: Medicine, Physician, Osteoarthritis, Hip replacement, Shoulder, Failure rate, Shoulder replacement, Scapula

144

The aim of this study was to determine if there were significant differences in glenohumeral joint morphology between North American and East Asian populations that may influence sizing and selection of shoulder arthroplasty systems.

Concepts: Asia, Joints, Shoulder, North America, Asian American, Deltoid muscle, Glenohumeral joint

65

Shoulder pathologies of the rotator cuff of the shoulder are common in clinical practice. The focus of this pictorial essay is to discuss the anatomical details of the rotator interval of the shoulder, correlate the anatomy with normal ultrasound images and present selected pathologies. We focus on the imaging of the rotator interval that is actually the anterosuperior aspect of the glenohumeral joint capsule that is reinforced externally by the coracohumeral ligament, internally by the superior glenohumeral ligament and capsular fibers which blend together and insert medially and laterally to the bicipital groove. In this article we demonstrate the capability of high-resolution musculoskeletal ultrasound to visualize the detailed anatomy of the rotator interval. MSUS has a higher spatial resolution than other imaging techniques and the ability to examine these structures dynamically and to utilize the probe for precise anatomic localization of the patient’s pain by sono-palpation.

Concepts: Biology, Anatomy, Medical school, Human anatomy, Anatomical terms of location, Shoulder, Rotator cuff, Glenohumeral joint

39

Arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) is the most commonly performed surgical intervention for shoulder pain, yet evidence on its efficacy is limited. The rationale for the surgery rests on the tenet that symptom relief is achieved through decompression of the rotator cuff tendon passage. The primary objective of this superiority trial is to compare the efficacy of ASD versus diagnostic arthroscopy (DA) in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS), where DA differs only by the lack of subacromial decompression. A third group of supervised progressive exercise therapy (ET) will allow for pragmatic assessment of the relative benefits of surgical versus non-operative treatment strategies.

Concepts: Medical terms, Randomized controlled trial, Surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Placebo, Shoulder, Rotator cuff, Arthroscopy

37

Frozen shoulder is a common yet poorly understood musculoskeletal condition, which for many, is associated with substantial and protracted morbidity. Understanding the pathology associated with this condition may help to improve management. To date this has not been presented in a systematic fashion. As such, the aim of this review was to summarise the pathological changes associated with this primary frozen shoulder.

Concepts: Pathology, Understanding, Knowledge, Shoulder, Forensic pathology

36

The scapula functions as a bridge between the shoulder complex and the cervical spine and plays a very important role in providing both mobility and stability of the neck/shoulder region. The association between abnormal scapular positions and motions and glenohumeral joint pathology has been well established in the literature, whereas studies investigating the relationship between neck pain and scapular dysfunction have only recently begun to emerge. Although several authors have emphasised the relevance of restoring normal scapular kinematics through exercise and manual therapy techniques, overall scapular rehabilitation guidelines decent for both patients with shoulder pain as well as patients with neck problems are lacking. The purpose of this paper is to provide a science-based clinical reasoning algorithm with practical guidelines for the rehabilitation of scapular dyskinesis in patients with chronic complaints in the upper quadrant.

Concepts: Vertebral column, Shoulder, Cervical vertebrae, Glenohumeral joint, Scapula, Acromion

35

Rotator cuff related shoulder pain (RCRSP) is an over-arching term that encompasses a spectrum of shoulder conditions including; subacromial pain (impingement) syndrome, rotator cuff tendinopathy, and symptomatic partial and full thickness rotator cuff tears. For those diagnosed with RCRSP one aim of treatment is to achieve symptom free shoulder movement and function. Findings from published high quality research investigations suggest that a graduated and well-constructed exercise approach confers at least equivalent benefit as that derived from surgery for; subacromial pain (impingement) syndrome, rotator cuff tendinopathy, partial thickness rotator cuff (RC) tears and atraumatic full thickness rotator cuff tears. However considerable deficits in our understanding of RCRSP persist. These include; (i) cause and source of symptoms, (ii) establishing a definitive diagnosis, (iii) establishing the epidemiology of symptomatic RCRSP, (iv) knowing which tissues or systems to target intervention, and (v) which interventions are most effective.

Concepts: Diagnosis, Greek loanwords, Symptom, Symptomatic treatment, Shoulder, Rotator cuff, Shoulder problems, Rotator cuff tear

34

Frozen shoulder is a poorly understood condition that typically involves substantial pain, movement restriction, and considerable morbidity. Although function improves overtime, full and pain free range, may not be restored in everyone. Frozen shoulder is also known as adhesive capsulitis, however the evidence for capsular adhesions is refuted and arguably, this term should be abandoned. The aim of this Masterclass is to synthesise evidence to provide a framework for assessment and management for Frozen Shoulder. Although used in the treatment of this condition, manipulation under anaesthetic has been associated with joint damage and may be no more effective than physiotherapy. Capsular release is another surgical procedure that is supported by expert opinion and published case series, but currently high quality research is not available. Recommendations that supervised neglect is preferable to physiotherapy have been based on a quasi-experimental study associated with a high risk of bias. Physiotherapists in the United Kingdom have developed dedicated care pathways that provide; assessment, referral for imaging, education, health screening, ultrasound guided corticosteroid and hydro-distension injections, embedded within physiotherapy rehabilitation. The entire pathway is provided by physiotherapists and evidence exists to support each stage of the pathway. Substantial on-going research is required to better understand; epidemiology, patho-aetiology, assessment, best management, health economics, patient satisfaction and if possible prevention.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Shoulder, Joint manipulation, Adhesive capsulitis of shoulder, Hydrodilatation, Diseases involving the fasciae