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Concept: Short


Excessive sedentary time is ubiquitous in Western societies. Previous studies have relied on self-reporting to evaluate the total volume of sedentary time as a prognostic risk factor for mortality and have not examined whether the manner in which sedentary time is accrued (in short or long bouts) carries prognostic relevance.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Actuarial science, Sociology, Long, Western culture, Cold War, Short


In this work we study the dynamical features of editorial wars in Wikipedia (WP). Based on our previously established algorithm, we build up samples of controversial and peaceful articles and analyze the temporal characteristics of the activity in these samples. On short time scales, we show that there is a clear correspondence between conflict and burstiness of activity patterns, and that memory effects play an important role in controversies. On long time scales, we identify three distinct developmental patterns for the overall behavior of the articles. We are able to distinguish cases eventually leading to consensus from those cases where a compromise is far from achievable. Finally, we analyze discussion networks and conclude that edit wars are mainly fought by few editors only.

Concepts: Conflict, Dynamics, Newspaper, Controversy, Short, Controversies, Editorial


In this work, the unique properties of graphene oxide were combined with the anion selectivity of metalloporphyrin to fabricate a novel fluoride-selective sensor. The electrode made of 27% PVC, 54% NPOE, 4% NaTPB and 15% NbTPPGO was found to show the most favorable behavior. The sensor shows a Nernstian response (58.3mV decade(-1)) in the concentration window of 5.0×10(-1)-5.0×10(-7)molL(-1)with detection limit of 8.0×10(-87)molL(-1). The response of the sensor was found to be stable in the pH range of 3.0-7.0 and the metalloporphyrin grafted-GO based F(-) sensors displayed very good selectivity with respect to a number of anions. The proposed sensor displays a long life time (more than 12 weeks) with a short response time of about 20s.

Concepts: Cathode, Oxide, PH, Ion, Graphene, Sensor, Short, Display device


Short and long sleep duration have been linked with higher rates of comorbid medical and mental health issues, as well as increased mortality. The current study examined the association between sleep duration, mental health problems, and health risk behaviors in a large sample of U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans.

Concepts: Psychology, Medicine, The Association, Mental disorder, The Current, Long, Sunshine pop, Short


Given their importance in shaping social networks and determining how information or transmissible diseases propagate in a population, interactions between individuals are the subject of many data collection efforts. To this aim, different methods are commonly used, ranging from diaries and surveys to decentralised infrastructures based on wearable sensors. These methods have each advantages and limitations but are rarely compared in a given setting. Moreover, as surveys targeting friendship relations might suffer less from memory biases than contact diaries, it is interesting to explore how actual contact patterns occurring in day-to-day life compare with friendship relations and with online social links. Here we make progresses in these directions by leveraging data collected in a French high school and concerning (i) face-to-face contacts measured by two concurrent methods, namely wearable sensors and contact diaries, (ii) self-reported friendship surveys, and (iii) online social links. We compare the resulting data sets and find that most short contacts are not reported in diaries while long contacts have a large reporting probability, and that the durations of contacts tend to be overestimated in the diaries. Moreover, measured contacts corresponding to reported friendship can have durations of any length but all long contacts do correspond to a reported friendship. On the contrary, online links that are not also reported in the friendship survey correspond to short face-to-face contacts, highlighting the difference of nature between reported friendships and online links. Diaries and surveys suffer moreover from a low sampling rate, as many students did not fill them, showing that the sensor-based platform had a higher acceptability. We also show that, despite the biases of diaries and surveys, the overall structure of the contact network, as quantified by the mixing patterns between classes, is correctly captured by both networks of self-reported contacts and of friendships, and we investigate the correlations between the number of neighbors of individuals in the three networks. Overall, diaries and surveys tend to yield a correct picture of the global structural organization of the contact network, albeit with much less links, and give access to a sort of backbone of the contact network corresponding to the strongest links, i.e., the contacts of longest cumulative durations.

Concepts: Sociology, Interpersonal relationship, Pattern, Contact lens, Networks, Friendship, Short, Contact


The use of hyperpolarized agents in magnetic resonance, such as (13)C-labelled compounds, enables powerful new imaging and detection modalities that stem from a 10,000-fold boost in signal. A major challenge for the future of the hyperpolarization technique is the inherently short spin-relaxation times, typically <60 s for (13)C liquid-state compounds, which limit the time that the signal remains boosted. Here we demonstrate that 1.1% natural abundance (13)C spins in synthetic nanodiamond can be hyperpolarized at cryogenic and room temperature without the use of free radicals, and, owing to their solid-state environment, exhibit relaxation times exceeding 1 h. Combined with the already established applications of nanodiamonds in the life sciences as inexpensive fluorescent markers and non-cytotoxic substrates for gene and drug delivery, these results extend the theranostic capabilities of nanoscale diamonds into the domain of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance.

Concepts: DNA, Time, Life, Ecology, Future, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Short


MinION is a memory stick-sized, nanopore-based sequencer primarily designed for single-molecule sequencing of long DNA fragments (>6 kb). We developed a library preparation and data analysis method to enable rapid, real-time sequencing of short DNA fragments (<1 kb) and resulted in sequencing of 500 reads in 3 min and 40,000-80,000 reads in 2-4 hours at a rate of 30 nt/s. We then demonstrated the clinical applicability of this approach by performing successful aneuploidy detection in prenatal and miscarriage samples with sequencing in <4 hours. This method broadens the application of nanopore-based single-molecule sequencing and makes it a promising versatile tool for rapid clinical and research applications.

Concepts: DNA, Pregnancy, Molecular biology, Developed country, Data, Abortion, Short, Prenatal care


The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as © total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. Practitioner Summary: A prospective study of the office environment’s effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Long, The Opportunity, Short, Multivariate, Office, Open plan


Abstract Purpose. The purpose of this study was to test if moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in less than the recommended ≥10-minute bouts related to weight outcomes. Design. Secondary data analysis. Setting. Random sample from the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants. A total of 4511 adults aged 18 to 64 years from the 2003-2006 NHANES. Method. Clinically measured body mass index (BMI) and overweight/obese status were regressed on accelerometer measures of minutes per day in higher-intensity long bouts (≥10 minutes, ≥2020 accelerometer counts per minute [cpm]), higher-intensity short bouts (<10 minutes, ≥2020 cpm), lower-intensity long bouts (≥10 minutes, 760-2019 cpm), and lower-intensity short bouts (<10 minutes, 760-2019 cpm). Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were controlled. Results. Both higher-intensity short bouts and long bouts of PA related to lower BMI and risk of overweight/obesity. Neither lower-intensity short bouts nor long bouts related to BMI or risk of overweight/obesity. Conclusion. The current ≥10-minute MVPA bouts guideline was based on health benefits other than weight outcomes. Our findings showed that for weight gain prevention, accumulated higher-intensity PA bouts of <10 minutes are highly beneficial, supporting the public health promotion message that "every minute counts."

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Obesity, Mass, Body mass index, Long, Body weight, Short


Natural resource-related conflicts can be extremely destructive and undermine environmental protection. Since the 1990s co-management schemes, whereby the management of resources is shared by public and/or private sector stakeholders, have been a main strategy for reducing these conflicts worldwide. Despite initial high hopes, in recent years co-management has been perceived as falling short of expectations. However, systematic assessments of its role in conflict prevention or mitigation are non-existent. Interviews with 584 residents from ten protected areas in Colombia revealed that co-management can be successful in reducing conflict at grassroots level, as long as some critical enabling conditions, such as effective participation in the co-management process, are fulfilled not only on paper but also by praxis. We hope these findings will re-incentivize global efforts to make co-management work in protected areas and other common pool resource contexts, such as fisheries, agriculture, forestry and water management.

Concepts: Conflict, Protection, Organizational conflict, Short, Common-pool resource, Conflict management, Hope, Grassroots