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Concept: Shizuoka Prefecture


This paper focuses on an overview of radioactive cesium 137 (quasi-Cs137 included Cs134) contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and eastern Japan based on the data published by the Fisheries Agency of the Japanese Government in 2011. In the area north and west of the Fukushima Nuclear plant, freshwater fish have been highly contaminated. For example, the mean of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) is 2,657 Bq/kg at Mano River, 20-40 km north-west from the plant. Bioaccumulation is observed in the Agano river basin in Aizu sub-region, 70-150 km west from the plant. The active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of carnivorous Salmondae is around 2 times higher than herbivorous Ayu. The extent of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu is observed in the entire eastern Japan. The some level of the contamination is recognized even in Shizuoka prefecture, 400 km south-west from the plant.

Concepts: Chernobyl disaster, Japan, Freshwater fish, Prefectures of Japan, Government of Japan, Honshū, Shizuoka Prefecture, Ayu


Plectranthias takasei is described from two specimens collected in Izu Oceanic Park, Sagami Bay, Honshu, Japan. It is distinguished from congeners in having the following combination of characters: dorsal rays X,15; no fleshy flaps on dorsal-fin spines; pectoral rays 13, all unbranched; branched caudal-fin rays 8 + 7; lateral line scales 28 (including intermittent and terminal pitted scales); circumpeduncular scales 12; fourth dorsal-fin spine longest; and preopercle without antrorse spines or serrations ventrally, with 2-3 weak serrations or crenulations posteriorly.

Concepts: Following, Serranidae, Fish anatomy, Tokyo, Kanagawa Prefecture, Shizuoka Prefecture, Sagami Bay, Izu Peninsula


We surveyed Rickettsiales bacteria including Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neoehrlichia in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. In spleen samples from 187 deer, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (deer type), A. bovis, and A. centrale were successfully detected by PCR assay targeted to 16S rDNA or p44/msp2, and their positive rates were 96.3% (180/187), 53.5% (100/187), and 78.1% (146/187), respectively. Additionally, two or three Anaplasma species could be detected from a single deer in 165 spleen samples (88.2%), indicating the dual or triple infection in deer. In contrast, A. phagocytophilum (human type) 16S rDNA, Rickettsia gltA, Ehrlichia p28/omp-1, and Neoehrlichia 16S rDNA could not be amplified. The serological test with 105 deer serum samples by immunofluorescence assay showed that the detection of antibodies against antigens of A. phagocytophilum HZ (US-human isolate) and Rickettsia japonica YH were 29.5% (31/105) and 75.2% (79/105), respectively. These findings suggest that A. phagocytophilum (deer type), A. centrale, followed by A. bovis are highly dominated and prevalent in wild sika deer in Shizuoka, a middle part of Japan, and the antibodies against some Rickettsiales bacteria has also been retained in deer blood.

Concepts: Antibody, Deer, Rickettsiales, Japan, Red Deer, Prefectures of Japan, Sika Deer, Shizuoka Prefecture


This report describes the draft genome sequence of Novosphingobium sp. strain MBES04, isolated from sunken wood from Suruga Bay, Japan, which is capable of degrading a wide range of lignin-related aromatic monomers. The draft genome sequence contains 5,361,448 bp, with a G+C content of 65.4%.

Concepts: DNA, Archaea, Human Genome Project, Virus, Genome, Rice, Conscription in the United States, Shizuoka Prefecture


Objectives: To clarify the views of the general population of two countries (US and Japan), concerning the handling of their medical records electronically. Methods: We contacted people nationwide in the United States at random via Random Digit Dialing (RDD) to obtain 200 eligible responders. The questionnaire was for obtaining the information on their attitudes towards handling of their medical records, disclosure of the name of disease, secondary usage of information, compiling their records into a lifelong medical record, and access to their medical records on the Internet. We had also surveyed people of Shizuoka prefecture in Japan using same questionnaires sent by mail, for which we obtained 457 valid answers. Results: Even in an unidentifiable manner, US people feel profit-oriented usage of medical data without specific consent is not acceptable. There is a significant difference between usage of unidentifiable medical data for profit (about 50% feel negatively) and for official/research purposes (about 30% feel negatively). About 60% of the US responders have a negative view on the proposal that unidentifiable medical information be utilized for profit by private companies to attain healthcare cost savings. As regards compiling a lifelong medical record, positive answers and negative answers are almost equally divided in the US (46% vs. 38%) while more positive attitudes are seen in Japan (74% vs. 12%). However, any incentive measures aimed at changing attitudes to such a compiling including the discount of healthcare costs or insurance fees are unwelcomed by people regardless of their age or health condition in both surveys. Regarding the access to their own medical record via the Internet, 38% of the US responders feel this is unacceptable while 50.5% were willing to accept it. Conclusions: Participants from the US think that the extent of the sharing their identifiable medical records should be limited to the doctors-in-charge and specified doctors referred to by their own doctors. On the other hand, Japanese people find it acceptable for doctors of the same hospital to share their medical records. Even in unidentifiable manner, people in both countries think the profits resulting from the secondary use of medical records should be returned to the public or patients. With regard to compiling a lifelong medical record, participants from the US provided both positive answers and negative answers, while more positive attitudes were observed in Japan. However, any incentives or measures aimed at changing attitudes towards such a compilation, including provision of a discount on healthcare costs or insurance fees, were not welcomed by participants from US as well as those from Japan, regardless of their age or health condition.

Concepts: Health care, Health, Japan, Medical history, Prefectures of Japan, Medical law, Honshū, Shizuoka Prefecture


The concentrations of arsenic (As) species in 19 food composites prepared from 159 food items purchased in Shizuoka city, Japan, were determined (1) to estimate total daily intake of inorganic As (InAs) and some organic As species and (2) to determine food contributing to total daily InAs intake. As analysis included extraction of As species with a synthetic gastric juice (0.07 mol/L HCl + 0.01 % pepsin) from food composite and high-performance liquid chromatography-high efficiency photo-oxidation-hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. InAs was detected in 9 of 19 food composites at a concentration of 0.423-450 ng As/g fresh-weight. Daily intake of InAs from cereals was greatest (13 μg/person/day) followed by algae (5.7 μg/person/day), and the intake from the two categories constituted 90 % of the total daily InAs intake of adults (21 μg/person/day on a bioaccessible-fraction basis and 24 μg/person/day on a content basis). Analysis of individual food items showed that rice and hijiki contributed virtually 100 % of InAs from cereals and algae, respectively. The present survey indicated that InAs from rice and hijiki consumption contributed to total daily InAs intake and consequently to significant cancer risk of the general Japanese population. Daily intake of some organic forms of As and their contributing food categories was also estimated.

Concepts: Oxygen, Japan, Composite material, Estimation, Rice, Organometallic chemistry, Shizuoka Prefecture, Shizuoka, Shizuoka


BACKGROUND: Previous reports on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for bowel decompression have included a relatively small number of patients and the details of post-procedural outcomes and complications are lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes and safety of PEG for bowel decompression in a relatively large number of patients with malignant bowel obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a 10-year period, 76 patients with malignant bowel obstruction were referred to the main referral cancer center in Shizuoka prefecture for PEG to obtain decompression. The method for gastrostomy was carried out by the pull-method, the modified introducer method and the percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy method. Patient demographics, procedural success, complications, elimination of nasal intubation, and survival were reviewed. RESULTS: Successful placement was achieved in 93% of patients (71/76). Procedure-related complications occurred in 21% ofpatients (15/71), of which the majority involved stomal leakage (eight patients), and wound infection (six patients). There were no procedure-related deaths. Among the 55 patients who required nasal intubation before PEG, a trans-gastrostomy intestinal tube was inserted in 16 patients. The need for further nasal intubation was eliminated in 96% of the patients (53/55). The median survival time was 63 days (range, 8-444 days) after PEG placement. CONCLUSIONS: PEG for bowel decompression in patients with malignant obstruction can be carried out with an acceptable risk of minor complications. In combination with a trans-gastrostomy intestinal tube insertion, the elimination of nasal intubation can be achieved in most patients.

Concepts: Bacteria, Infection, Constipation, Gastroenterology, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Prefectures of Japan, Honshū, Shizuoka Prefecture