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Concept: Sexual health

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This study examined adolescents' technology-based sexual communication with dating partners, and evaluated associations between technology-based communication and condom use.

Concepts: Graphic communication, Condom, Communication, Sex education, Sexual health

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Purpose The adaptation of the Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) guideline Interventions to Address Sexual Problems in People With Cancer provides recommendations to manage sexual function adverse effects that occur as a result of cancer diagnosis and/or treatment. Methods ASCO staff reviewed the guideline for developmental rigor and updated the literature search. An ASCO Expert Panel ( Table A1 ) was assembled to review the guideline content and recommendations. Results The ASCO Expert Panel determined that the recommendations from the 2016 CCO guideline are clear, thorough, and based upon the most relevant scientific evidence. ASCO statements and modifications were added to adapt the CCO guideline for a broader audience. Recommendations It is recommended that there be a discussion with the patient, initiated by a member of the health care team, regarding sexual health and dysfunction resulting from cancer or its treatment. Psychosocial and/or psychosexual counseling should be offered to all patients with cancer, aiming to improve sexual response, body image, intimacy and relationship issues, and overall sexual functioning and satisfaction. Medical and treatable contributing factors should be identified and addressed first. In women with symptoms of vaginal and/or vulvar atrophy, lubricants in addition to vaginal moisturizers may be tried as a first option. Low-dose vaginal estrogen, lidocaine, and dehydroepiandrosterone may also be considered in some cases. In men, medication such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors may be beneficial, and surgery remains an option for those with symptoms or treatment complications refractory to medical management. Both women and men experiencing vasomotor symptoms should be offered interventions for symptomatic improvement, including behavioral options such as cognitive behavioral therapy, slow breathing and hypnosis, and medications such as venlafaxine and gabapentin.Additional information is available at: www.asco.org/survivorship-guidelines and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki .

Concepts: Oncology, Health care, Sexual dysfunction, Sexual function, Chemotherapy, Sexual health, Orgasm, Medicine

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We presented a case of a postoperative patient with low-flow priapism, possibly initiated by propofol-based anaesthesia or epidural anaesthesia. The delay in diagnosing priapism resulted in emergency interventions with a partially successful effect and eventually permanent erectile dysfunction. Due to the delay in treatment, erectile dysfunction ensued and was manageable with medication; hence, the patient decided against a penile prosthesis.

Concepts: Sexual health, Local anesthetic, Peyronie's disease, Erection, Caesarean section, Priapism, Penis, Erectile dysfunction

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As more and more people are successfully treated for and live longer with cancer, greater attention is being directed toward the survivorship needs of this population. Women treated for cancer often experience issues related to sexual health and intimacy, which are frequently cited as areas of concern, even among long-term survivors. Unfortunately, data suggest that providers infrequently discuss these issues. We reviewed a contemporary understanding of sexual health of women and the impact of treatment on both sexual function and intimacy. We also provide a review of the diagnosis using the newest classification put forth by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, and potential treatments, including both endocrine and nonendocrine treatments that the general oncologist may be asked about when discussing sexual health with his or her patients.

Concepts: Medicine, Sexual health, Demography, American Psychiatric Association, Oncology, Psychiatry, Cancer, Mental disorder

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The current study examined whether three distinct antecedent factors related to maternal adverse childhood experiences were differentially associated with maternal health and psychosocial outcomes in the antepartum period. It was hypothesized that all three adverse childhood experience factors would be positively associated with poor health prior to pregnancy, poor reproductive health history, and health complications and psychosocial difficulties during pregnancy.

Concepts: The Current, Sexual health, Women's health, Infant, Empiricism

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Sexual and reproductive health and rights have gained prominence in the HIV response. The role of sexual and reproductive health in underpinning a successful approach to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and services has increasingly been recognized. However, the “second R,” referring to sexual and reproductive rights, is often neglected. This leads to policies and programs which both fail to uphold and fulfill these rights and which fail to meet the needs of those most affected by HIV by neglecting to take account of the human right-based barriers and challenges they face. In this commentary, the authors draw on the approach and practical experiences of the Link Up program, and the findings of a global consultation led for and by young people living with and most affected by HIV, to present a five-point framework to improve programming and health outomces by better protecting, respecting, and fulfilling the sexual health and reproductive rights of young people living with and most vulnerable to HIV.

Concepts: Unsafe abortion, Sexual health, Sex education, Reproductive justice, United Nations Population Fund, International Conference on Population and Development, Reproductive rights, Reproductive health

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There is a general paucity of research concerning the sexual health of transgender individuals, and most existing research focuses on transgender women. A scoping review concerning the sexual health of transgender men was conducted to identify gaps in the literature and to highlight opportunities for future research and intervention. A comprehensive search of seven databases was conducted. The Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual was used as a framework. Some 7,485 articles were initially identified using a search strategy applied to seven online databases: 54 articles were identified as relevant to the research questions and reviewed in detail; of those, 33 were included in the final analysis. Studies were conceptualized into four broad themes: sexual behaviors, sexual identity, sexual pleasure and sexual function, and transactional sex. Besides an overall lack of research, existing studies were often characterized by small convenience samples that do not allow for generalization to the larger population of transgender men. Significant gaps in the literature regarding sexual coercion, sexual and intimate partner violence, and relationship quality and functioning among transgender men exist. There is a need to improve the scope and depth of research examining the sexual health of this population, especially concerning sexual risk behaviors and structural barriers to sexual health care access.

Concepts: Demography, Health care, Sexual health, Health, Gender, Gender identity, Human sexuality, Domestic violence

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Since the police-involved deaths of Michael Brown and Freddie Gray, activists have argued for connecting police violence with reproductive justice. We argue that systematic violence, including police violence, should be evaluated in relation to reproductive health outcomes of individual patients and communities. Beyond emphasizing the relationship between violence and health outcomes, both qualitative and epidemiologic data can be used by activists and caregivers to effectively care for individuals from socially marginalized communities.

Concepts: Illness, Sexual health, Reproductive rights, Reproductive justice, Reproductive health, Health, Epidemiology, Demography

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Discussions about sexual health are uncommon in clinical encounters, despite the sexual dysfunction associated with many common health conditions. Understanding of the importance of sexual health and sexual satisfaction in U.S. adults is limited.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Erectile dysfunction, Life, Personal life, Sexual health

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Condoms protect against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy and are essential to sexual health efforts targeting young adults, who are disproportionately affected by both outcomes. Understanding condom use motives is critical to increasing condom use. Research in this area is limited, particularly regarding the roles of partners and relationship factors. Using a longitudinal sample of 441 young adults and 684 reported partnerships we examined associations between relationship factors and condom use motives (pregnancy prevention, disease prevention, or dual protection). Simultaneous multilevel models identified variables associated with motives; level-specific models identified the levels (individual, partnership, time) variables impacted motives. Participants reported choosing condoms for pregnancy prevention, disease prevention, and dual protection in 51%, 17%, and 33% of partnerships, respectively. Partner-specific factors varied, to a differing degree, across the three levels. Seven variables (duration, condom self-efficacy, commitment, sexual decision-making, power, and vulnerability to harm [HIV/STIs] and pregnancy) distinguished condom use motives. The level of this association varied but was most pronounced at the partner and individual levels. Researchers and practitioners should consider the impact of both individual- and partner-level factors on condom use motives, in both research and sexual health programs.

Concepts: Partnership, Sexual health, Sex education, HIV, Sexual intercourse, Birth control, AIDS, Condom