Concept: Seton stitch
We have devised a modified seton technique that resects the external fistula tract while preserving the anal sphincter muscle. This study assessed the technique when used for the management of complex anal fistulas.
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to document our recent experience in managing horseshoe fistula of cryptoglandular origin with a modification of the Hanley procedure using a hybrid elastic one-stage cutting seton. METHODS: Surgical outcomes of the modified Hanley procedure for horseshoe fistulae using a seton from 2004 through 2010 were analyzed. The seton fashioned from a surgical glove was tied around the sphincter under less tension than a traditional cutting seton, hence the definition of “hybrid seton”. In addition to excision of the superficial segments of the lateral tracts, deeper extensions into the ischiorectal spaces were curetted, and Penrose drains were placed. RESULTS: All of the patients were discharged on the first postoperative day. None required readmission or needed narcotic analgesics after discharge. Complete healing was achieved in all 21 cases at 8.0 ± 3.22 weeks postoperatively. Patients were able to return to regular work activity in 3.5 ± 1 weeks. The postoperative Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score did not differ significantly from the preoperative score (p = 0.317, Wilcoxon’s test). Recurrent fistula was noted in a single patient (4.8 %) after a mean follow-up of 20.9-months. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the hybrid elastic seton is a useful and safe additional modification for the treatment of horseshoe fistulae with the Hanley technique.
: The ideal surgery following seton insertion for high anal fistulas remains debatable.
Several biomaterials have been proposed to treat anal fistula alone or in combination with other surgical procedures aiming to reduce recurrence rates while minimizing continence impairment. More recently a porcine dermal matrix injection has been proposed as infill biomaterial to treat fistulae. We propose an approach consisting of non-cutting seton positioning followed several weeks later by flap repair associated with dermal matrix injection into the fistula tracts. We report our experience with this two-staged procedure on 24 consecutive patients with complex anal fistulae with a median follow up of > 12 months. In our experience this two-stage approach seems to be safe and effective.
Ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) is a relatively new technique in the treatment of complex anorectal fistulas. As it spares the anal sphincter, rates of post-operative incontinence may be lower when compared to conventional treatment. To date, there have not been enough reports of long-term fistula recurrence rates. We performed a long-term follow-up study of 75 patients who underwent LIFT following seton drainage and partial fistulotomy.
Despite modern medical techniques, anatomically proximal (high) anal fistulas are still a challenge in colorectal surgery. In previous years, the standard of care was complete fistulectomy with a high rate of continence disorders. Over the past 20 to 30 years, sphincter-saving procedures have gained wide acceptance. They represent the technique used in these cases. Additionally, many patients received indefinite treatment, namely the placement of a seton to maintain surgical drainage. The main problem with all fistula surgical possibilities is the high recurrence rate of 30 to 50% in flap procedures and 100% persistence in seton treatments. In recent years, a direct repair (primary reconstruction) in distal fistulas was instigated and shows excellent results. It allowed our technique for proximal (high) anal fistulas to evolve.
Management of complex perineal fistulas such as high perianal, rectovaginal, pouch-vaginal, rectourethral, or pouch-urethral fistulas requires a systematic approach. The first step is to control any sepsis with drainage of abscess and/or seton placement. Patients with large, recurrent, irradiated fistulas benefit from stoma diversion. In patients with Crohn’s disease, it is essential to induce remission prior to any repair. There are different approaches to repair complex fistulas, from local repairs to transperineal and transabdominal approaches. Simpler fistulas are amenable to local repair. More complex fistulas, such as those secondary to irradiation, require interposition of healthy, well-vascularized tissue. The most common flap used for this treatment is the gracilis muscle with good outcomes reported. Once healing is confirmed by imaging and endoscopy, the stoma is reversed.
The type of loose seton for complex anal fistula is essential to improve perianal comfort and quality of life
- Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
- Published about 2 years ago
The use of a loose seton for complex anal fistulae can cause perianal discomfort and reduced quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the novel knot-free Comfort Drain on quality of life, perianal comfort and faecal continence compared to conventional loose setons.
No single procedure for high anal fistula delivers a high cure rate while also completely protecting sphincter function. This paper reports our long-term results with the cutting seton for high fistulae and draws comparisons with advancement flap and ligation of intersphincteric fistula track (LIFT) procedures.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience in managing high anal fistulas with a simple modification of the cutting seton. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of standardized patient charts and of prospectively collected scores and questionnaires. Surgical outcomes of 128 consecutive, well-documented patients with high anal fistulas, including anterior transsphincteric fistulas in females, treated using a hybrid seton, were analyzed. RESULTS: No significant complications occurred. The mean postoperative pain scores on a visual analog scale were 3.23 and 0.61, on days 1 and 7, respectively. Complete healing was achieved in 67 cases (52.3 %) at 1 month and in all cases (100 %) at 3 months. Recurrent fistula was noted in 2 patients (1.5 %) at 6 and 12 months. The mean postoperative incontinence scores at 3 and 12 months did not differ significantly from the preoperative score (p = 0.061, Wilcoxon’s test). The depression, life style, and embarrassment item scores of the fecal incontinence quality of life index improved significantly after surgical treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this series suggest that the hybrid seton might be a valid alternative for the treatment of high anal fistulas, eliminating the need for postoperative adjustments. The slow and stable cutting of the sphincter seems to have a positive effect on the maintenance of continence. The successful outcome is associated with significant improvement in quality of life.