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Concept: September 11


After the World Trade Center attacks on 11 September 2001 (9/11), multiple cohorts were developed to monitor the health outcomes of exposure. Respiratory and cancer effects have been covered at length. This current study sought to review the literature on other physical conditions associated with 9/11-exposure. Researchers searched seven databases for literature published in English from 2002 to October 2017, coded, and included articles for health condition outcome, population, 9/11-exposures, and comorbidity. Of the 322 titles and abstracts screened, 30 studies met inclusion criteria, and of these, 28 were from three cohorts: the World Trade Center Health Registry, Fire Department of New York, and World Trade Center Health Consortium. Most studies focused on rescue and recovery workers. While many of the findings were consistent across different populations and supported by objective measures, some of the less studied conditions need additional research to substantiate current findings. In the 16 years after 9/11, longitudinal cohorts have been essential in investigating the health consequences of 9/11-exposure. Longitudinal studies will be vital in furthering our understanding of these emerging conditions, as well as treatment effectiveness.

Concepts: September 11 attacks, September 11, World Trade Center, Lower Manhattan, Al-Qaeda, 7 World Trade Center, World Trade Center site, National September 11 Memorial & Museum


Abstract Psychologists have long assumed a connection between traumatic experience and psychological dissociation. This hypothesis is referred to as the Trauma Model of dissociation. In the last decade, a series of papers have been published that question this traditional causal link, proposing an alternative Fantasy Model of dissociation. In this research, the relationship among dissociation, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were examined. Suggestibility was measured through the Gudjonsson Scale of Interrogative Suggestibility (GSS), as well as an autobiographically based version of this measure based on the events of September 11, 2001. Consistent with prior research and with the Trauma Model, dissociation correlated positively with trauma severity (r = .32, p < .01) and fantasy proneness (r = .60, p < .01). Inconsistent with the Fantasy Model, dissociation did not correlate with the neutral form of the Gudjonsson, and correlated negatively (r = -.24, p < .05) with the trauma-focused form of this suggestibility measure. Although some participants did become quite emotional during the procedure, the risk/benefit ratio was perceived by almost all participants to be positive, with more reactive individuals evaluating the procedure more positively. The results consistently support the Trauma Model of dissociation and fail to support the Fantasy Model of dissociation.

Concepts: Psychology, Measurement, Psychological trauma, First-order logic, Metalogic, Dissociation, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, September 11


Multiple chronic health conditions have been associated with exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks (9/11). We assessed whether excess deaths occurred during 2003-2014 among persons directly exposed to 9/11, and examined associations of 9/11-related exposures with mortality risk.

Concepts: 2001, September 11 attacks, September 11, World Trade Center, Lower Manhattan, United 93, 7 World Trade Center, World Trade Center site


Post-traumatic symptomatology is one of the signature effects of the pernicious exposures endured by responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11), but the long-term extent of diagnosed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its impact on quality of life are unknown. This study examines the extent of DSM-IV PTSD 11-13 years after the disaster in WTC responders, its symptom profiles and trajectories, and associations of active, remitted and partial PTSD with exposures, physical health and psychosocial well-being.

Concepts: September 11 attacks, September 11, World Trade Center, Lower Manhattan, United 93, Al-Qaeda, 7 World Trade Center, World Trade Center site


Millions of people witnessed early, repeated television coverage of the September 11 (9/11), 2001, terrorist attacks and were subsequently exposed to graphic media images of the Iraq War. In the present study, we examined psychological- and physical-health impacts of exposure to these collective traumas. A U.S. national sample (N = 2,189) completed Web-based surveys 1 to 3 weeks after 9/11; a subsample (n = 1,322) also completed surveys at the initiation of the Iraq War. These surveys measured media exposure and acute stress responses. Posttraumatic stress symptoms related to 9/11 and physician-diagnosed health ailments were assessed annually for 3 years. Early 9/11- and Iraq War-related television exposure and frequency of exposure to war images predicted increased posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 to 3 years after 9/11. Exposure to 4 or more hr daily of early 9/11-related television and cumulative acute stress predicted increased incidence of health ailments 2 to 3 years later. These findings suggest that exposure to graphic media images may result in physical and psychological effects previously assumed to require direct trauma exposure.

Concepts: Iraq War, War on Terrorism, 2003 invasion of Iraq, George W. Bush, Iraq, September 11, Opposition to the Iraq War, The Pentagon


The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it.

Concepts: United States, Atlantic Ocean, Mental disorder, War on Terrorism, September 11 attacks, September 11, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Al-Qaeda


Terrorists can strike twice-first, by directly killing people, and second, through dangerous behaviors induced by fear in people’s minds. Previous research identified a substantial increase in U.S. traffic fatalities subsequent to the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were accounted for as due to a substitution of driving for flying, induced by fear of dread risks. Here, we show that this increase in fatalities varied widely by region, a fact that was best explained by regional variations in increased driving. Two factors, in turn, explained these variations in increased driving. The weaker factor was proximity to New York City, where stress reactions to the attacks were previously shown to be greatest. The stronger factor was driving opportunity, which was operationalized both as number of highway miles and as number of car registrations per inhabitant. Thus, terrorists' second strike exploited both fear of dread risks and, paradoxically, an environmental structure conducive to generating increased driving, which ultimately increased fatalities.

Concepts: New York City, Terrorism, September 11 attacks, September 11, Federal Bureau of Investigation, World Trade Center, Aircraft hijacking, Jihad


Within a week of the attack of September 11, 2001, a consortium of researchers from across the United States distributed a survey asking about the circumstances in which respondents learned of the attack (their flashbulb memories) and the facts about the attack itself (their event memories). Follow-up surveys were distributed 11, 25, and 119 months after the attack. The study, therefore, examines retention of flashbulb memories and event memories at a substantially longer retention interval than any previous study using a test-retest methodology, allowing for the study of such memories over the long term. There was rapid forgetting of both flashbulb and event memories within the first year, but the forgetting curves leveled off after that, not significantly changing even after a 10-year delay. Despite the initial rapid forgetting, confidence remained high throughout the 10-year period. Five putative factors affecting flashbulb memory consistency and event memory accuracy were examined: (a) attention to media, (b) the amount of discussion, © residency, (d) personal loss and/or inconvenience, and (e) emotional intensity. After 10 years, none of these factors predicted flashbulb memory consistency; media attention and ensuing conversation predicted event memory accuracy. Inconsistent flashbulb memories were more likely to be repeated rather than corrected over the 10-year period; inaccurate event memories, however, were more likely to be corrected. The findings suggest that even traumatic memories and those implicated in a community’s collective identity may be inconsistent over time and these inconsistencies can persist without the corrective force of external influences. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Psychology, Cognitive psychology, Neuroscience, Memory, All rights reserved, Emotion and memory, September 11


Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, a rally effect led to a precipitous rise in political trust. However, the increase in political trust concealed a simultaneous decline among a smaller portion of the population. This paper examines the psychological mechanisms underlying these heterogeneous attitudes towards government and shows that a biosocial model best explains the observed patterns of response. The interplay of genetic and environmental factors of political trust reveals the stable but dynamic nature of heritability: genetic influences of political trust increased immediately following 9/11 but quickly decayed to pre-9/11 levels.

Concepts: Genetics, Environment, Attack, Nature, September 11 attacks, September 11, World Trade Center, The Pentagon


OBJECTIVE: To understand the circumstances surrounding the occupational homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the USA. METHODS: Narrative text analysis of Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted reports. RESULTS: A total of 796 officers were killed in the line of duty between 1996 and 2010. The occupational homicide rate during the time peaked in 2001 at 3.76/100 000 (excluding those killed during the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks), and was lowest in 2008 at 1.92/100 000. Most LEOs (67%) were killed by short-barrel firearms; 10% were killed with their own service weapon. The most frequent encounter with a suspect prior to a homicide was responding to a disturbance call. CONCLUSIONS: These results should inform officer training and the policies, as well as procedures used when interacting with suspects, especially when firearms are involved.

Concepts: United States, Terrorism, 1913, 1922, September 11 attacks, September 11, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Murder