Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Semitone


The PACE trial was a well-powered randomised trial designed to examine the efficacy of graded exercise therapy (GET) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for chronic fatigue syndrome. Reports concluded that both treatments were moderately effective, each leading to recovery in over a fifth of patients. However, the reported analyses did not consistently follow the procedures set out in the published protocol, and it is unclear whether the conclusions are fully justified by the evidence.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Report, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Semitone


Access to health care for asylum-seekers and refugees (AS&R) in Germany is initially restricted before regular access is granted, allegedly leading to delayed care and increasing costs of care. We analyse the effects of (a) restricted access; and (b) two major policy reforms (1997, 2007) on incident health expenditures for AS&R in 1994-2013.

Concepts: Health care, Clinical trial, Europe, Canada, France, Chord, Massachusetts, Semitone


Running with a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern has been suggested to reduce the risk of overuse running injuries, due to a reduced vertical loadrate compared with rearfoot strike (RFS) running. However, resultant loadrate has been reported to be similar between foot strikes when running in traditional shoes, leading to questions regarding the value of running with a FFS. The influence of minimal footwear on the resultant loadrate has not been considered. This study aimed to compare component and resultant instantaneous loadrate (ILR) between runners with different foot strike patterns in their habitual footwear conditions.

Concepts: Pattern, Shoe, Footwear, Semitone, Strike action


Chronic increase in left ventricular filling pressure represents one of the most important mechanism underlying the structural, as well as the electrical, atrial chamber remodeling leading to atrial fibrillation. The present pilot pathophysiological study sought to investigate possible relationship between short–period cross–spectral coherence of P–Q, R–R and P–P intervals and echocardiographic indices of left ventricular and atrial function.

Concepts: Blood, Cardiology, Ejection fraction, Heart, Atrial fibrillation, Ventricle, Semitone, Jugular venous pressure


Type III (T-III) endoleaks following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) remain a major concern. Our center experienced a recent concentration of T-III endoleaks requiring elective and emergency treatment and prompted our review of all EVAR implants over a 40-month period from April 2011 until August 2014. This report represents a single center experience with T-III endoleak management with analysis of factors leading to the T-III-related failure of EVAR.

Concepts: Management, Experience, Urgent care, Chord, Semitone, Failure mode and effects analysis, 2011, Baseball


Biological, physical, and social systems often display qualitative changes in dynamics. Developing early warning signals to predict the onset of these transitions is an important goal. The current work is motivated by transitions of cardiac rhythms, where the appearance of alternating features in the timing of cardiac events is often a precursor to the initiation of serious cardiac arrhythmias. We treat embryonic chick cardiac cells with a potassium channel blocker, which leads to the initiation of alternating rhythms. We associate this transition with a mathematical instability, called a period-doubling bifurcation, in a model of the cardiac cells. Period-doubling bifurcations have been linked to the onset of abnormal alternating cardiac rhythms, which have been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias such as T-wave alternans and various tachycardias. Theory predicts that in the neighborhood of the transition, the system’s dynamics slow down, leading to noise amplification and the manifestation of oscillations in the autocorrelation function. Examining the aggregates' interbeat intervals, we observe the oscillations in the autocorrelation function and noise amplification preceding the bifurcation. We analyze plots-termed return maps-that relate the current interbeat interval with the following interbeat interval. Based on these plots, we develop a quantitative measure using the slope of the return map to assess how close the system is to the bifurcation. Furthermore, the slope of the return map and the lag-1 autocorrelation coefficient are equal. Our results suggest that the slope and the lag-1 autocorrelation coefficient represent quantitative measures to predict the onset of abnormal alternating cardiac rhythms.

Concepts: Scientific method, Regression analysis, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac electrophysiology, English-language films, Quantitative research, Semitone


Debates on the origins of consonance and dissonance in music have a long history. While some scientists argue that consonance judgments are an acquired competence based on exposure to the musical-system-specific knowledge of a particular culture, others favor a biological explanation for the observed preference for consonance. Here we provide experimental confirmation that this preference plays an adaptive role in human cognition: it reduces cognitive interference. The results of our experiment reveal that exposure to a Mozart minuet mitigates interference, whereas, conversely, when the music is modified to consist of mostly dissonant intervals the interference effect is intensified.

Concepts: Cognition, Music, Chord, Semitone, Consonance and dissonance, Harmony, Tonality, Counterpoint


Anti-1,8-bisTPI-naphthalene in which two imidazole rings are constrained to an anti-conformation leading to the first-formed 1,4'-isomer of the bridged imidazole dimer has been synthesized. The color of the radicals is different from that of the previously reported bridged-imidazolyl radicals because the intramolecular interaction between the radicals becomes weak due to the anti-conformation. This molecular design would be a profitable strategy to control the color of the radicals of the bridged imidazole dimer for application in ophthalmic lenses.

Concepts: Chemical bond, Semitone


Some patients with cancer experience multiple pre-diagnostic consultations in primary care, leading to longer time intervals to specialist investigations and diagnosis. Patients with rarer cancers are thought to be at higher risk of such events, but concrete evidence of this is lacking.

Concepts: Medical terms, Pathology, The Canon of Medicine, Medical test, Semitone


We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

Concepts: Phonology, Linguistics, Language, Pitch, Semitone, Interval, Consonance and dissonance, Octave