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Concept: Secondary education


BACKGROUND: In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. METHODS: A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. RESULTS: A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3) and 3.4 (1.8) respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812) and 26.2% (213/812) were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13%) and 130 (16%) respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%.In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education < secondary level (OR=7.8; CI=5.6-10.9; P=0.00), husband education < secondary level (OR=1.9; CI=1.3-2.6, P = 0.00) and woman's occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00) were associated with the total unmet need. CONCLUSIONS: Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple's educational status and woman's occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

Concepts: Family, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Birth control, Marriage, Family planning, Abortion, Secondary education


The influence of e-cigarette use on smoking initiation is a highly controversial issue, with limited longitudinal data available for examining temporal associations. We examined e-cigarette use and its association with cigarette-smoking initiation at 1-year follow-up within a large cohort of Canadian secondary school students.

Concepts: Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Smoking, Tobacco, Cigarette, Nicotine, Electronic cigarette, Secondary education


We undertook a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of group-based behavioral activation with mindfulness (BAM) for treating subthreshold depression in primary care in Hong Kong.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Efficacy, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Major depressive disorder, Secondary education, Behaviorism, Chinese language, Hong Kong


Small but timely experiences can have long-term benefits when their psychological effects interact with institutional processes. In a follow-up of two randomized field experiments, a brief values affirmation intervention designed to buffer minority middle schoolers against the threat of negative stereotypes had long-term benefits on college-relevant outcomes. In study 1, conducted in the Mountain West, the intervention increased Latino Americans' probability of entering a college readiness track rather than a remedial one near the transition to high school 2 y later. In study 2, conducted in the Northeast, the intervention increased African Americans' probability of college enrollment 7-9 y later. Among those who enrolled in college, affirmed African Americans attended relatively more selective colleges. Lifting a psychological barrier at a key transition can facilitate students' access to positive institutional channels, giving rise to accumulative benefits.

Concepts: United States, Sociology, Middle school, High school, Secondary education, College, Secondary school, School


Positive peer relationships play a significant role in the development of students. They are beneficial for learning and psychological outcomes. This article draws upon an important distinction between the four main themes of social participation (friendships, interactions, peer acceptance and self-perception of social participation) and examines these aspects in inclusive and regular classes. Especially, differences in social participation of students with and without special educational needs (SEN) in inclusive classes and between students without SEN in inclusive and regular classes are examined. In this study, data from 1115 pupils in primary and secondary schools in Austria were analysed, of which 129 were diagnosed as having SEN. The results showed that in inclusive classes, students with SEN had lower scores on all four subthemes of social participation (friendships, interactions, peer acceptance and self-perception of social integration) than students without SEN. Regarding students without SEN, friendships and peer acceptance were significantly higher in inclusive classes than in regular classes. Differences were neither found for gender, nor between primary and secondary school students.

Concepts: Education, High school, Secondary education, College, Primary education, Secondary school, Italy, Special education


The aim of this study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) in a large representative sample of secondary school students and identified the risk and protective factors. Using a crosssectional design, 2170 participants were recruited from senior high schools throughout Taiwan using both stratified and cluster sampling. The prevalence of IA was 17.4% (95% confidence interval, 15.8%-19.0%). High impulsivity, low refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, high positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, high disapproving attitude of Internet use by others, depressive symptoms, low subjective well-being, high frequency of others' invitation to Internet use, and high virtual social support was all independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of IA among secondary school students in Taiwan was high. Results from this study can be used to help educational agencies and mental health organizations create policies and design programs that will help in the prevention of IA in adolescents.

Concepts: Middle school, High school, Secondary education, College, Secondary school, Vocational school, Grammar school, Comprehensive school


The aims of this study were to examine indicators of socioeconomic deprivation among secondary school students and to determine associations between household poverty, neighbourhood deprivation and health indicators.

Concepts: School terminology, The Association, High school, Secondary education, College, Primary education, Secondary school, Grammar school


There is little empirical evidence of the impact of transition from primary to secondary school on obesity-related risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a change of school system on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour in pre-early adolescents.

Concepts: Cohort study, Longitudinal study, School terminology, High school, Secondary education, College, Primary education, Secondary school



In mainstream education, the transition from primary to secondary school (‘school transition’) is difficult for children with autism spectrum disorder, being marked by high levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties. The Systemic Transition in Education Programme for Autism Spectrum Disorder (STEP-ASD) is a new, manualised school transition intervention. We investigated its feasibility and efficacy for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (N = 37; mean age = 11.47 years; mean IQ = 85.24) using an unblinded, non-randomised, controlled design. Teachers found the intervention feasible and acceptable. Children receiving STEP-ASD (n = 17) showed a large (Cohen’s d = 0.88) reduction in school-reported emotional and behavioural difficulties, whereas controls (n = 20) showed a slight increase (d = -0.1) (p = 0.010). These encouraging findings suggest the value of STEP-ASD as a low-intensity intervention for reducing problem behaviours and distress in children with autism spectrum disorder as they transition to mainstream secondary school.

Concepts: Psychology, Autism, High school, Autism spectrum, Secondary education, College, Primary education, Secondary school