SciCombinator

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Concept: Searching

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Although traditionally the primary information sources for cancer patients have been the treating medical team, patients and their relatives increasingly turn to the Internet, though this source may be misleading and confusing. We assess Internet searching patterns to understand the information needs of cancer patients and their acquaintances, as well as to discern their underlying psychological states. We screened 232,681 anonymous users who initiated cancer-specific queries on the Yahoo Web search engine over three months, and selected for study users with high levels of interest in this topic. Searches were partitioned by expected survival for the disease being searched. We compared the search patterns of anonymous users and their contacts. Users seeking information on aggressive malignancies exhibited shorter search periods, focusing on disease- and treatment-related information. Users seeking knowledge regarding more indolent tumors searched for longer periods, alternated between different subjects, and demonstrated a high interest in topics such as support groups. Acquaintances searched for longer periods than the proband user when seeking information on aggressive (compared to indolent) cancers. Information needs can be modeled as transitioning between five discrete states, each with a unique signature representing the type of information of interest to the user. Thus, early phases of information-seeking for cancer follow a specific dynamic pattern. Areas of interest are disease dependent and vary between probands and their contacts. These patterns can be used by physicians and medical Web site authors to tailor information to the needs of patients and family members.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Web search engine, Search engine optimization, World Wide Web, Internet, Searching, Yahoo!

43

Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools.The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval.

Concepts: Google Scholar, Accuracy and precision, Web search engine, Statistical classification, Object-oriented programming, Searching, Google, Recall

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Previously, we reported on the low recall of Google Scholar (GS) for systematic review (SR) searching. Here, we test our conclusions further in a prospective study by comparing the coverage, recall, and precision of SR search strategies previously performed in Embase, MEDLINE, and GS.

Concepts: Medical research, Review, Search engine optimization, Bibliographic databases, Searching, The Search

36

Van der Waals heterostructures are comprised of stacked atomically thin two-dimensional crystals and serve as novel materials providing unprecedented properties. However, the random natures in positions and shapes of exfoliated two-dimensional crystals have required the repetitive manual tasks of optical microscopy-based searching and mechanical transferring, thereby severely limiting the complexity of heterostructures. To solve the problem, here we develop a robotic system that searches exfoliated two-dimensional crystals and assembles them into superlattices inside the glovebox. The system can autonomously detect 400 monolayer graphene flakes per hour with a small error rate (<7%) and stack four cycles of the designated two-dimensional crystals per hour with few minutes of human intervention for each stack cycle. The system enabled fabrication of the superlattice consisting of 29 alternating layers of the graphene and the hexagonal boron nitride. This capacity provides a scalable approach for prototyping a variety of van der Waals superlattices.

Concepts: Van der Waals force, Graphite, Assembly language, Diamond, Problem solving, Searching, Cycle, Boron nitride

35

The usefulness of Google Scholar (GS) as a bibliographic database for biomedical systematic review (SR) searching is a subject of current interest and debate in research circles. Recent research has suggested GS might even be used alone in SR searching. This assertion is challenged here by testing whether GS can locate all studies included in 21 previously published SRs. Second, it examines the recall of GS, taking into account the maximum number of items that can be viewed, and tests whether more complete searches created by an information specialist will improve recall compared to the searches used in the 21 published SRs.

Concepts: Academic publishing, Medical research, Review, Bibliographic databases, Bibliographic database, Bibliography, Searching, Reference management software

28

Purpose: To develop a transdisciplinary conceptualization of social belonging that could be used to guide measurement approaches aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of community-based programs for people with disabilities. Method: We conducted a narrative, scoping review of peer reviewed English language literature published between 1990 and July 2011 using multiple databases, with “sense of belonging” as a key search term. The search engine ranked articles for relevance to the search strategy. Articles were searched in order until theoretical saturation was reached. We augmented this search strategy by reviewing reference lists of relevant papers. Results: Theoretical saturation was reached after 40 articles; 22 of which were qualitative accounts. We identified five intersecting themes: subjectivity; groundedness to an external referent; reciprocity; dynamism and self-determination. Conclusion: We define a sense of belonging as a subjective feeling of value and respect derived from a reciprocal relationship to an external referent that is built on a foundation of shared experiences, beliefs or personal characteristics. These feelings of external connectedness are grounded to the context or referent group, to whom one chooses, wants and feels permission to belong. This dynamic phenomenon may be either hindered or promoted by complex interactions between environmental and personal factors. [Box: see text].

Concepts: Philosophy of language, Semantics, Review, Search engine optimization, Reciprocity, Searching, Reference, Reciprocal

28

Two-Photon Processor (TPP) is a versatile, ready-to-use and freely available software package in MATLAB to process data from in vivo two photon calcium imaging. TPP includes routines to search for cell bodies in full-frame (SeNeCA - Search for Neural Cells Accelerated) and line-scan acquisition, routines for calcium signal calculations, filtering, spike-mining and routines to construct parametric fields. Searching for somata in artificial in vivo data, our algorithm achieved better performance than human annotators. SeNeCA copes well with uneven background brightness and in-plane motion artifacts, the major problems in simple segmentation methods. In the fast mode, artificial in vivo images with a resolution of 256x256 containing ~100 neurons can be processed at a rate up to 175 frames per second (tested on Intel i7, 8 threads, magnetic HDD). This speed of a segmentation algorithm could bring new possibilities into the field of in vivo optophysiology. With such a short latency (down to 5-6 ms in an ordinary PC) and using some contemporary optogenetic tools, it will allow experiments in which a control program can continuously evaluate the occurrence of a particular spatial pattern of activity (a possible correlate of memory or cognition) and subsequently inhibit/stimulate the entire area of the circuit or inhibit/stimulate a different part of the neuronal system. Two-Photon Processor will be freely available on our public website. Similar all-in-one and freely available software has not yet been published.

Concepts: Nervous system, Neuron, In vivo, Synapse, Computer program, Soma, Searching, Intel Core i7

28

Calcium hydroxide has been used extensively in dentistry for a century. Despite its widespread use as a pulp-capping agent, its mechanisms of action still remain ambiguous. Understanding its modes of action will lead to a broader understanding of the mechanisms associated with induced dentinogenesis and help in optimizing the currently available agents to target specific regenerative processes to obtain the best possible clinical outcomes. A literature search relating to mechanisms of dentinogenesis of calcium hydroxide up to December 2011 was carried out using pubmed and MEDLINE database searches as well as manual searching of cross-references from identified studies. Resulting suggestions regarding dentinogenic mechanisms of calcium hydroxide range from direct irritating action of the material to induction of release of biologically active molecules. The purpose of this article is to discuss various mechanisms through which calcium hydroxide may induce tertiary dentinogenesis in the light of observations made in included studies.

Concepts: Chemistry, Search engine optimization, Agent, Searching, Calcium hydroxide

28

It is well known that observers can implicitly learn the spatial context of complex visual searches, such that future searches through repeated contexts are completed faster than those through novel contexts, even though observers remain at chance at discriminating repeated from new contexts. This contextual-cueing effect arises quickly (within less than five exposures) and asymptotes within 30 exposures to repeated contexts. In spite of being a robust effect (its magnitude is over 100┬áms at the asymptotic level), the effect is implicit: Participants are usually at chance at discriminating old from new contexts at the end of an experiment, in spite of having seen each repeated context more than 30 times throughout a 50-min experiment. Here, we demonstrate that the speed at which the contextual-cueing effect arises can be modulated by external rewards associated with the search contexts (not with the performance itself). Following each visual search trial (and irrespective of a participant’s search speed on the trial), we provided a reward, a penalty, or no feedback to the participant. Crucially, the type of feedback obtained was associated with the specific contexts, such that some repeated contexts were always associated with reward, and others were always associated with penalties. Implicit learning occurred fastest for contexts associated with positive feedback, though penalizing contexts also showed a learning benefit. Consistent feedback also produced faster learning than did variable feedback, though unexpected penalties produced the largest immediate effects on search performance.

Concepts: English-language films, Control theory, Learning, Audio feedback, Penalty, Searching, Manic Street Preachers, Implicit learning

28

With the advancement of pharmaceutical development, drug interactions have become increasingly complex. As a result, a computer-based drug interaction search system is required to organize the whole of drug interaction data. To overcome problems faced with the existing systems, we developed a drug interaction search system using a hash table, which offers higher processing speeds and easier maintenance operations compared with relational databases (RDB). In order to compare the performance of our system and MySQL RDB in terms of search speed, drug interaction searches were repeated for all 45 possible combinations of two out of a group of 10 drugs for two cases: 5,604 and 56,040 drug interaction data. As the principal result, our system was able to process the search approximately 19 times faster than the system using the MySQL RDB. Our system also has several other merits such as that drug interaction data can be created in comma-separated value (CSV) format, thereby facilitating data maintenance. Although our system uses the well-known method of a hash table, it is expected to resolve problems common to existing systems and to be an effective system that enables the safe management of drugs.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drugs, Pharmaceutical drug, Relational database, Searching, SQL, Relational model, Relation