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Concept: Scrupulosity

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Objectives: There are ongoing uncertainties in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). This study aimed to test the proposition that OCPD may be a marker of severity of OCD by comparing groups of OCD individuals with and without OCPD on a number of variables. Method: A total of 148 adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCPD were compared with those without OCPD. Results: Some 70 (47.3%) participants were diagnosed with OCPD. The groups of participants with and without OCPD did not differ significantly with respect to any of the demographic variables, clinician-rated severity of OCD, levels of disability and mean age of onset of OCD. All self-rated OCD symptom dimensions except for contamination and checking were significantly more prominent in participants with OCPD, as were all self-rated dimensions of psychopathology. Participants with OCPD had significantly more frequent hoarding compulsions and obsessions involving a need to collect and keep objects. Of Axis I disorders, only panic disorder was significantly more frequent in participants with OCPD than in those without OCPD. Conclusions: A high frequency of OCPD among individuals with OCD suggests a strong, although not necessarily a unique, relationship between the two conditions. This finding may also be a consequence of the blurring of the boundary between OCD and OCPD by postulating that hoarding and hoarding-like behaviours characterise both disorders. Results of this study do not support the notion that OCD with OCPD is a marker of clinician-rated severity of OCD. However, individuals with OCPD had more prominent OCD symptoms, they were more distressed and exhibited various other psychopathological phenomena more intensely, which is likely to complicate their treatment.

Concepts: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Abnormal psychology, Psychiatry, Personality disorders, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Compulsive hoarding, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Scrupulosity

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Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Currently, little neuropsychological data exist on this condition, though emerging evidence does suggest that disorders marked by compulsivity, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), are associated with impairment in cognitive flexibility and executive planning on neurocognitive tasks. Aim The current study investigated the neurocognitive profile in a nonclinical community-based sample of people fulfilling diagnostic criteria for OCPD in the absence of major psychiatric comorbidity.

Concepts: Psychology, Personality disorders, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Scrupulosity

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Neuroticism and religiosity are distal vulnerability factors for OCD phenomenon. The present study aimed to examine the roles of obsessive beliefs (OBs), thought-control strategies, and guilt in the relationship between these vulnerability factors and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs), specifically scrupulosity symptoms in a Muslim sample via SEM. The sample consisted of 273 university students who filled out a set of questionnaires. The results indicated that neuroticism and the degree of religiosity predict OBs that are positively associated with guilt and self-punishment both of which predict scrupulosity and other OCSs. Findings of the present study were discussed in the context of the related literature.

Concepts: Anxiety, Present, Future, Academic degree, Student, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Scrupulosity

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Because stability over time is central to the definition of personality disorder, aim of the current study was to determine the stability of the Pregnancy Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) Symptoms Checklist (N = 199 women). Strong positive correlations between assessments at 32 weeks of pregnancy and 2 and 3-3.5 years after childbirth were found (r between .62-.72), and the group mean score did not change over time. The Pregnancy OCPD Symptoms Checklist assesses stable, trait-like symptoms of OCPD.

Concepts: Childbirth, Personality psychology, Cauchy distribution, Personality disorder, Personality disorders, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Scrupulosity

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Internet use is pervasive in many cultures. Little is known about the impact of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptoms on impulsive and compulsive psychopathologies in people who use the Internet.

Concepts: Personality psychology, Personality disorder, Internet, Personality disorders, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, History of the Internet, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Scrupulosity

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Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between OCPD and psychological stress and psychological tests.

Concepts: Anxiety, Psychology, Personality psychology, Interpersonal relationship, Personality disorders, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Scrupulosity

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The evidence regarding whether co-morbid obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is associated with treatment outcomes in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is mixed, with some research indicating that OCPD is associated with poorer response, and some showing that it is associated with improved response.

Concepts: Personality disorders, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Scrupulosity

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The current study examined the extent to which the trait-based operationalization of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in Section III of the DSM-5 describes the same construct as the one described in Section II. A community sample of 313 adults completed a series of personality inventories indexing the DSM-5 Sections II and III diagnostic criteria for OCPD, in addition to a measure of functional impairment modelled after the criteria in Section III. Results indicated that latent constructs representing Section II and Section III OCPD overlapped substantially (r = .75, p < .001). Hierarchical latent regression models revealed that at least three of the four DSM-5 Section III facets (Rigid Perfectionism, Perseveration, and Intimacy Avoidance) uniquely accounted for a large proportion of variance (53%) in a latent Section II OCPD variable. Further, Anxiousness and (low) Impulsivity, as well as self and interpersonal impairment, augmented the prediction of latent OCPD scores.

Concepts: Anxiety, Regression analysis, Borderline personality disorder, Avoidant personality disorder, Personality disorders, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Scrupulosity

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The current case-control study compared rates of clinically significant and reliable change in psychopathology and global functioning, prevalence of clinical deterioration, and rates of symptom remission among adult patients with obsessive compulsive personality disorder OCPD (n=52) and well-matched inpatients with any other personality disorder (n=56) and no personality disorder (n=53).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Personality disorders, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Scrupulosity

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Individuals who suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder have persistent intrusive thoughts that cause severe distress that impairs daily functioning. These individuals often conceal their intrusive thoughts and delay help-seeking for fear of being stigmatized. Stigma can be problematic when it is present among mental health professionals because they may distance themselves from their clients and have a negative outlook on treatment outcome. To date there has not been any research that focuses on stigma that clinician’s may hold towards obsessive-compulsive disorder or specific obsessions; however, there is evidence that mental health professionals may have prejudices towards individuals who suffer from other mental illnesses. The current study aimed to explore clinician and student clinician attitudes about obsessional content from varying symptom dimensions. Results indicated participants were more likely to socially reject or be concerned by individuals with obsessions related to contamination, harming, and sexual obsessions than those with scrupulous obsessions, and that they would be less likely to reveal sexual obsessions to others if they were experiencing them than the other three types of obsessions.

Concepts: Psychology, Mental health, Mental disorder, Psychiatry, Body dysmorphic disorder, Anxiety disorders, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Scrupulosity