Computer imaging techniques are commonly used to preserve and share readable manuscripts, but capturing writing locked away in ancient, deteriorated documents poses an entirely different challenge. This software pipeline-referred to as “virtual unwrapping”-allows textual artifacts to be read completely and noninvasively. The systematic digital analysis of the extremely fragile En-Gedi scroll (the oldest Pentateuchal scroll in Hebrew outside of the Dead Sea Scrolls) reveals the writing hidden on its untouchable, disintegrating sheets. Our approach for recovering substantial ink-based text from a damaged object results in readable columns at such high quality that serious critical textual analysis can occur. Hence, this work creates a new pathway for subsequent textual discoveries buried within the confines of damaged materials.
Throughout Antiquity magical amulets written on papyri, lead and silver were used for apotropaic reasons. While papyri often can be unrolled and deciphered, metal scrolls, usually very thin and tightly rolled up, cannot easily be unrolled without damaging the metal. This leaves us with unreadable results due to the damage done or with the decision not to unroll the scroll. The texts vary greatly and tell us about the cultural environment and local as well as individual practices at a variety of locations across the Mediterranean. Here we present the methodology and the results of the digital unfolding of a silver sheet from Jerash in Jordan from the mid-8(th) century CE. The scroll was inscribed with 17 lines in presumed pseudo-Arabic as well as some magical signs. The successful unfolding shows that it is possible to digitally unfold complexly folded scrolls, but that it requires a combination of the know-how of the software and linguistic knowledge.
We describe the scroll system as a new microparticulate structured delivery system for enhanced delivery to/across the skin. The basic components of the scroll system are non-ionic surface active of the type of alkyl polyglycol ethers and a glycol. The unique structures are preserved with addition of various ingredients such as polymers, vegetable oils, pharmaceuticals, and permeation enhancers but are dismissed when amphiphile is withdrawn. The microparticles have a unique scroll structure with multiple “wrapping.” Besides enabling superior permeation of drugs into/across the skin, the drugs delivered by scroll systems were more effective in vitro and in vivo compared to controls. Model drugs presented high entrapment capacity in scroll systems. The systems are stable over time and are safe for skin application. In order to form, they require a small number of ingredients, simple preparation method, and are environment friendly. The scroll systems may be new potential tools in the dermal/transdermal pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry.
The competition between the out-of-plane rigidity and the van der Waals interaction leads to the scrolled and folded structural configurations of graphene. These configuration changes, as compared with the initially planar geometry, significantly affect the electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene, promising exciting applications in graphene-nanoelectronics. We propose a finite-deformation theoretical model, in which no presumed assumptions on the geometries of deformed configurations are required. Both the predicted deformed profiles and the critical conditions show great agreements with molecular dynamics simulations results when compared with existing studies with simple geometrical assumptions. Moreover, MD simulations are performed to explore the morphology transitions between different configurations. It is observed that the folded configuration is energetically favorable for a short graphene sheet, while a long graphene sheet tends to scroll. Of particular interest, we observe the morphology transition from a Fermat scroll to the Archimedean scroll for the bi-scrolled graphene. These findings are useful for understanding the stability of graphene and may provide guidance to the design of programmable graphene-nanoelectronics.
Black phosphorene (BP) has shown anisotropic, electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties for various promising applications in recent years. To take full advantage of this unique anisotropy in its further functional design and application, it is of paramount importance to separate BP with well-defined chirality quickly and precisely. In this paper, we propose three efficient methods to separate BP ribbons with different chiralities by utilizing their strong chirality-dependent bending stiffness. Our results show that the bending stiffness in the zigzag direction is 4 times larger than that in the armchair direction. The mechanical anisotropy and bending-binding competition are used to realize chirality-dependent design. To fold, wrap or scroll the BP nanoribbons, it is necessary to overcome the bending stiffness by applying the binding energy between the BP nanoribbons and the contact surfaces. Due to the mechanical anisotropy, the BP nanoribbons could easily be folded, wrapped and scrolled along the armchair direction rather than the zigzag direction. Therefore, we introduce this characteristic in our chirality separation designs as, the self-folding model to fold up the armchair BP nanoribbons by nanoparticles, the suspension-bridge sieve model to pull down the armchair BP nanoribbons, and the nanorod-roller model to scroll up the armchair nanoribbons. Our separation methods in this research can be extended to other 2D materials with anisotropic mechanical properties. We hope our findings would offer a novel route for the manufacturing of BP-based electronic devices and self-assembly of nano-devices.
We report a simple and novel method for the fabrication of high-quality nanoscrolls of graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide decorated with silver nanoparticles (GO-Ag) on a gold substrate through a scrolling process assisted by the self-assembly of alkanethiol monolayers. The yield and rate of the scrolling process were highly dependent on the lengths of the alkanethiol molecules, and could be well described by power law functions. Importantly, compared to nanosheets, nanoscrolls of GO and GO-Ag showed superior performance in humidity sensing due to their unique scrolled structures.
The present study investigated, whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of four Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants' performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3°, 0.6°, 1.0°, and 3.0°) and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces). Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word). Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (three, four, and six character words). Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length in scrolling Japanese words.
This article presents a new, detailed catalogue of the Greek manuscripts at the Wellcome Library in London. It consists of an introduction to the history of the collection and its scholarly importance, followed by separate entries for each manuscript. Each entry identifies the text(s) found in the respective manuscript - including reference to existing printed edition(s) of such texts - and gives a physical description of the codex, details on its provenance and bibliographical references.
Modern radiology often involves search for abnormalities in 3D volumes of imagery (e.g. chest CT, breast tomosynthesis). Drew et al., (2013) used eye tracking to identify two different search strategies: “drillers” scroll quickly through depth while keeping their eye position relatively constant, while “scanners” examine each XY plane before scrolling more slowly in depth. To determine if one method is inherently superior, we developed an analog to radiologic search that can be performed by non-experts. Target “T’s” and distractor “L’s” were inserted into a 3D block of 1/f noise. Naive participants were given driller or scanner instructions. Observers marked T’s they found with mouse clicks. XY eye-position was recorded at 1000 Hz and co-registered with slice/depth plane as the observers scrolled through the 3D volume. Scan paths indicate that observers were scanning or drilling as instructed. Results from 8 participants reading 21 simulated cases suggest that miss error rates were lower for drillers than for scanners. Search durations, however, were ~2X longer for drillers (186sec vs 98sec). This raises the obvious possibility of a speed-accuracy tradeoff that might be countered by further instruction. Drilling, overall, was associated with somewhat shorter fixations (270 msec vs 229 msec) and shorter distances travelled per unit of time by the eyes, consistent with the differences between drilling and scanning. More extensive testing of non-radiologists is required before recommendations could be made regarding best practice by experts. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015.
To present a case of syphilitic interstitial keratitis with Descemet’s scrolls, as well as its characteristic findings in an anterior segment investigation in relation to the histopathologic findings from a literature review.