Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Scout Motto


Mental health is a major concern in many countries. We explore whether youth participation in the Scouts and Guides could protect mental health in later life and in particular whether it might reduce inequalities in mental health associated with early life socioeconomic position.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Scout Motto, Clinical trial, Baseball, Scouting, Youth, Sociology, Cohort study


There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury.

Concepts: Knitting, Physical trauma, Injuries, Scout Motto, Protection, Sport, Injury


Obstetric hemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal mortality in resource limited areas. An inexpensive pneumatic anti-shock garment was devised of bicycle tubes and tailored cloth which can be prepared from local materials in resource-limited settings. The main purposes of this study were: 1) to determine acceptability of the device by nurses and midwives and obtain suggestions for making the device more suitable for use in their particular work environments, 2) to determine whether a three hour training course provided adequate instruction in the use of this device for the application of circumferential abdominal pelvic pressure, and 3) determine production capability and cost in a resource-limited country.

Concepts: Scout Motto, Maternal death, Proof of concept, Obstetrical hemorrhage, Clothing, Childbirth, Obstetrics


Functional materials that respond to external stimuli are of major current interest. In particular, supramolecular systems that can interact with surroundings, adapt to environmental changes and evolve with are even more fascinating, yet challenging. Combining the rich physico-chemical properties featured by metal centres with characteristics typical of classical organic polymers, metallopolymers or metallo-supramolecular polymers can be prepared, depending on their static vs. dynamic structural features. Additionally, multiple and orthogonal functionalities can be encoded in their chemical structure affording materials with widespread potential applications to be employed as “smart” materials for advanced technologies. In this Concept article, selected examples of metal-containing polymers will be described demonstrating large potentialities of such systems for creating stimuli-responsive materials with special emphasis for those showing optical application.

Concepts: Polyanhydrides, Scout Motto, Chemical substance, Polymer, Chemical compound, System, Structure, Chemistry


Mesoporous silver-melamine (Ag-MA) nanocomposites were synthesized simply by the controlled supermolecular self-assembly process to be modified onto the electrodes for the electroanalysis of multiple sulfides in blood or wastewater. It was discovered that Ag-MA nanocomposites could be prepared with various morphological structures depending on the Ag-to-MA ratios. Furthermore, the electrodes modified with mesoporous Ag-MA nanowires could display stable and sharp electrochemical peaks of solid-state AgCl at a considerably low potential approaching to zero, thus circumventing any interference from possibly co-existing electroactive substances in background. More importantly, the yielded AgCl signals would decrease selectively induced by sulfides through the specific sulfide-chloride replacement reactions towards the transferring of AgCl into non-electroactive Ag2S. The developed electroanalysis strategy could facilitate the selective detection of multiple sulfides (i.e., S2- or H2S, Sx2-, cysteine, and S2O32-) in the complicated media with high-level salts like blood and wastewater, showing a linear concentration range from 0.50 to 512.0 μM as exemplified for S2- ions in blood. Such an electroanalysis device equipped with the portable electrochemical transducer can be tailored for the field-deployable monitoring of a variety of sulfides in clinical and environmental analysis fields.

Concepts: Molecular self-assembly, Ammonia, Scout Motto, Silver, Water, Electrochemistry, Electrolyte, Chemistry


The sulfuric acid-promoted cascade cyclization of 2-(3-hydroxyprop-1-ynyl)benzonitriles led to an efficient synthesis of spiro[indene-1,1'-isoindolin]-3'-ones. This class of spiro compounds could also be prepared by the sulfuric acid-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(phenylacryloyl)benzonitriles, which were readily derived from 2-(3-hydroxyprop-1-ynyl)benzamides using trifluroacetic acid as catalyst.

Concepts: Scout Motto, Spiro compound, Organic chemistry


Reaction of [U(TrenTIPS)(PH2)] (1, TrenTIPS = N(CH2CH2NSiPri3)3) with C6H5CH2K and [U(TrenTIPS)(THF)][BPh4] (2) afforded a rare diuranium-parent-phosphinidiide complex [{U(TrenTIPS)}2(μ-PH)] (3). Treatment of 3 with C6H5CH2K and two equivalents of benzo-15-crown-5 ether (B15C5) gave the diuranium-μ-phosphido complex [{U(TrenTIPS)}2(μ-P)][K(B15C5)2] (4). Alternatively, reaction of [U(TrenTIPS)(PH)][Na(12C4)2] (5, 12C4 = 12-crown-4 ether) with [U{N(CH2CH2NSiMe2But)2CH2CH2NSi(Me)(CH2)(But)}] (6) produced the diuranium-μ-phosphido complex [{U(TrenTIPS)}(μ-P){U(TrenDMBS)}][Na(12C4)2] [7, TrenDMBS = N(CH2CH2NSiMe2But)3]. Compounds 4 and 7 are unprecedented examples (outside of matrix isolation studies) of uranium-phosphido complexes that can be prepared and isolated, but they rapidly decompose in solution underscoring the paucity of uranium-phosphido complexes. Interestingly, 4 and 7 feature symmetric and asymmetric UPU cores, respectively, reflecting their differing steric profiles.

Concepts: Scout Motto, Complexity, Solvent, Matrix isolation, Complex, Matrix, Chemical reaction


Creating an intestinal stoma is commonly the final aspect of an often emergent and complicated operation under difficult circumstances. While creation of a protruding, tension-free, and well-vascularized stoma is often straightforward, one must be prepared for challenging situations such as a thick abdominal wall and short, thickened mesentery. A successful stoma starts with attentive preoperative planning including site marking, thoughtful consideration of alternatives, and attention to technical detail. The tips provided in this article should facilitate the process of selecting the appropriate intestinal segment, identifying the correct stoma site, and creating a functional stoma even in the most challenging situations. Constructing a high-quality stoma will decrease complications and improve the patient’s quality of life. Stoma creation is frequently the only component of an operation that the patient will have to live with for the remainder of his/her life.

Concepts: Scout Motto, Patient, Quality, The Final, Abdomen, Management, Life, Remainder


In an auditory attention-switching paradigm, participants heard two simultaneously spoken number-words, each presented to one ear, and decided if the target number was smaller or larger than five by pressing a left or right key. An instructional cue in each trial indicated which feature had to be used to identify the target-number (e.g. female voice). Auditory attention-switch costs were found when this feature changed compared to when it repeated in two consecutive trials. Earlier studies employing this paradigm showed mixed results when they examined whether such cued auditory attention-switches can be prepared actively during the cue-stimulus-interval. The present study systematically assessed which preconditions are necessary for the advance preparation of auditory attention-switches. Three experiments were conducted that controlled for cue-repetition-benefits, modality-switches between cue and stimuli, as well as for predictability of the switch-sequence. Only in the third experiment, in which predictability for an attention-switch was maximal due to a pre-instructed switch-sequence and predictable stimulus-onsets, active switch-specific preparation was found. These results suggest that the cognitive system can prepare auditory attention-switches, and this preparation seems to be triggered primarily by the memorized switching-sequence and valid expectations about the time of target-onset.

Concepts: Stanford prison experiment, Scout Motto, Cue sheet, Experiment, The Target, Time, Cue, Present


The production of (18)F-radiotracers using continuous flow microfluidics is under-utilized due to perceived equipment limitations. We describe the dose-on-demand principle, whereby the back-to-back production of multiple, diverse (18)F-radiotracers can be prepared on the same day, on the same microfluidic system using the same batch of [(18)F]fluoride, the same microreactor, the same HPLC column and SPE cartridge to obtain a useful production yield.

Concepts: Fluid dynamics, Scout Motto, Yield, Manufacturing, Microfluidics