Concept: Scout Motto
Mental health is a major concern in many countries. We explore whether youth participation in the Scouts and Guides could protect mental health in later life and in particular whether it might reduce inequalities in mental health associated with early life socioeconomic position.
There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury.
Obstetric hemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal mortality in resource limited areas. An inexpensive pneumatic anti-shock garment was devised of bicycle tubes and tailored cloth which can be prepared from local materials in resource-limited settings. The main purposes of this study were: 1) to determine acceptability of the device by nurses and midwives and obtain suggestions for making the device more suitable for use in their particular work environments, 2) to determine whether a three hour training course provided adequate instruction in the use of this device for the application of circumferential abdominal pelvic pressure, and 3) determine production capability and cost in a resource-limited country.
A metal-free thiolation reaction between pentafluorobenzene and disulfides by C-H, C-F bond activation and C-S bond formation is reported. Bisthiolated tetrafluorobenzene derivatives would be prepared in moderate to good yields from pentafluorobenzene and disulfides under mild conditions. A possible mechanism for the reaction was given.
We explored the interfacial synthesis of 2D N-graphdiyne films at the gas/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces. Triazine or pyrazine based monomers containing ethynyl group were polymerized through the Glaser coupling reactions at interfaces. Several layered, highly-ordered and conjugated 2D N-graphdiyne were obtained. Their structures were characterized by TEM, SEM, AFM, XPS and Raman spectra. Thin films with minimum thickness of 4 nm could be prepared.
It has been proposed that an old and ill person may have a ‘duty to die’, i.e. to refuse life-saving treatment or to end her own life, when she is dependent on the care of intimates and the burdens of care are becoming too heavy for them. In this paper I argue for three contentions: (1) You cannot have a strict duty to die, correlating to a claim-right of your relatives, because if they reach the point at which the burdens of care are larger than you can reasonably expect them to take, the natural conclusion is that their duty ends. (2) They may be prepared, however, to go on caring for you beyond that point. In that case your responsibility for their wellbeing may require you to refuse this care, even if this results in a situation for you in which death will be preferable to continued life. (3) If this is the correct understanding of your responsibilities, the objection that in the context of family life the burdens of care attached to one family member’s valued existence can never be ‘too heavy’, fails. It postulates unlimited concern on one side and a total lack of concern on the other.
A precursor method has been developed to synthesize Ce(iv) MOFs that could not be prepared directly from Ce(iv) salts. Starting from Ce6 clusters, two Ce-UiO-66 analogues and four tetracarboxylate-based Ce(iv) MOFs could be synthesized. The applied method facilitates framework formation by evading reactive individual Ce(iv)-ions thereby paving the way for further development of Ce-MOFs.
Mild conditions have been developed to achieve NBS-induced homodimerization of indole derivatives with excellent regioselectivity at 15 °C in high efficiency. This method provides a simple route to a 2,3'-linked biindolyl scaffold from the electron-rich to moderately electron-poor indoles. In addition, [3,2-a]carbazole derivatives can also be prepared through this method.
Functional materials that respond to external stimuli are of major current interest. In particular, supramolecular systems that can interact with surroundings, adapt to environmental changes and evolve with are even more fascinating, yet challenging. Combining the rich physico-chemical properties featured by metal centres with characteristics typical of classical organic polymers, metallopolymers or metallo-supramolecular polymers can be prepared, depending on their static vs. dynamic structural features. Additionally, multiple and orthogonal functionalities can be encoded in their chemical structure affording materials with widespread potential applications to be employed as “smart” materials for advanced technologies. In this Concept article, selected examples of metal-containing polymers will be described demonstrating large potentialities of such systems for creating stimuli-responsive materials with special emphasis for those showing optical application.
Mesoporous silver-melamine (Ag-MA) nanocomposites were synthesized simply by the controlled supermolecular self-assembly process to be modified onto the electrodes for the electroanalysis of multiple sulfides in blood or wastewater. It was discovered that Ag-MA nanocomposites could be prepared with various morphological structures depending on the Ag-to-MA ratios. Furthermore, the electrodes modified with mesoporous Ag-MA nanowires could display stable and sharp electrochemical peaks of solid-state AgCl at a considerably low potential approaching to zero, thus circumventing any interference from possibly co-existing electroactive substances in background. More importantly, the yielded AgCl signals would decrease selectively induced by sulfides through the specific sulfide-chloride replacement reactions towards the transferring of AgCl into non-electroactive Ag2S. The developed electroanalysis strategy could facilitate the selective detection of multiple sulfides (i.e., S2- or H2S, Sx2-, cysteine, and S2O32-) in the complicated media with high-level salts like blood and wastewater, showing a linear concentration range from 0.50 to 512.0 μM as exemplified for S2- ions in blood. Such an electroanalysis device equipped with the portable electrochemical transducer can be tailored for the field-deployable monitoring of a variety of sulfides in clinical and environmental analysis fields.