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Concept: Sclerotherapy


Recent evidence has indicated an association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis. Small internal jugular veins (IJVs) (with a cross-sectional area of less than 0.4 cm2) have been previously described as difficult to catheterize, and their presence may potentially affect cerebrospinal venous drainage. In this blinded extracranial color-Doppler study we had two principal aims: first, to assess prevalence of CCSVI among Serbian MS patients compared to healthy controls; and second, to assess prevalence of small IJVs (with a CSA <= 0.4 cm2) among MS patients and controls.

Concepts: Sclerotherapy, Area, Veins of the head and neck, Common facial vein, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, Multiple sclerosis


No existing patient-reported outcome instrument focuses solely on assessment of varicose veins symptoms that are bothersome to patients.

Concepts: Sclerotherapy, Varicose veins


Aim  The study aimed to use power Doppler imaging (PDI) transanal ultrasonography to produce three-dimensional power Doppler angiography images of haemorrhoidal tissue and to monitor the effects of Doppler-guided aluminium potassium sulfate and tannic acid (DGALTA) sclerotherapy. Method  Ninety-six haemorrhoids in 43 patients were examined using PDI transanal ultrasonography, and DGALTA sclerotherapy was performed from April 2011 to April 2012. DGALTA sclerotherapy was conducted using a four-step injection process with pulse wave Doppler ultrasound under perianal local anaesthesia. Results  A three-dimensional power Doppler angiography image of the blood flow in haemorrhoidal tissue was produced using PDI transanal ultrasonography. The cross-sectional area of blood flow in the haemorrhoidal tissue (PDI area) significantly decreased after DGALTA sclerotherapy. The PDI areas in the preoperative state and 1 and 3 months after treatment were 0.35 ± 0.27, 0.03 ± 0.05 and 0.04 ± 0.05 cm(2) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion  A three-dimensional power Doppler angiography image of the haemorrhoidal tissue was technically possible and showed blood flow in the haemorrhoidal tissue to be significantly decreased after DGALTA sclerotherapy.

Concepts: Radiology, Medical imaging, Perianal hematoma, Doppler effect, Hemorrhoid, Medical ultrasonography, Sclerotherapy, Ultrasound


INTRODUCTION:: No randomized clinical trial comparing treatment options for small saphenous vein (SSV) incompetence exists, and there is no clear evidence that this axis behaves the same as the great saphenous vein after treatment. This means that the existing literature base, centered on the treatment of great saphenous vein incompetence cannot simply be extrapolated to inform the management of SSV insufficiency. This trial compares the gold standard of conventional surgery and endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in the management of SSV incompetence. METHODS:: Patients with unilateral, primary saphenopopliteal junction incompetence and SSV reflux were randomized equally into parallel groups receiving either surgery or EVLA. Patients were assessed at baseline and weeks 1, 6, 12, and 52. Outcomes included successful abolition of axial reflux on duplex, visual analog pain scores, recovery time, complication rates, Venous Clinical Severity Score, and quality of life profiling. RESULTS:: A total of 106 patients were recruited and randomized to surgery (n = 53) or EVLA (n = 53). Abolition of SSV reflux was significantly higher after EVLA (96.2%) than surgery (71.7%) (P < 0.001). Postoperative pain was significantly lower after EVLA (P < 0.05), allowing an earlier return to work and normal function (P < 0.001). Minor sensory disturbance was significantly lower in the EVLA group (7.5%) than in surgery (26.4%) (P = 0.009). Both groups demonstrated similar improvements in Venous Clinical Severity Score and quality of life. CONCLUSION:: EVLA produced the same clinical benefits as conventional surgery but was more effective in addressing the underlying pathophysiology and was associated with less periprocedural morbidity allowing a faster recovery. (Registration number: NCT00841178.).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Sclerotherapy, Varicose veins, Small saphenous vein, Dorsal venous arch of the foot, Vein, Great saphenous vein, Superficial vein


BACKGROUND: A new treatable venous disorder, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), has been proposed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Its relationship with iron metabolism is suggested, but has not been examined prospectively. METHODS: We performed extra- and transcranial echo colour Doppler (ECD) in 90 patients with MS and 41 healthy controls (HC). Indices of iron metabolism and the presence of peripheral signs of impaired venous flow were also examined. RESULTS: The ECD examination showed CCSVI in 8 (9%) of the 90 patients with MS and 0 HC (P = 0.11). The 8 CCSVI-positive MS patients were older (P = 0.02), had less often RR-MS (P = 0.02) and had more neurological disability assessed by expanded disability status scale (EDSS, P = 0.001) and longer duration of disease (P = 0.02) in comparison with the 82 CCSVI-negative MS patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that EDSS remained an independent factor associated with CCSVI (odds ratio 1.89, 95%CI 1.17-3.05, P-value = 0.009). CCSVI MS patients more often had bilateral telangiectasia at the legs (P = 0.008), reticular veins (P = 0.006) and venous stasis dermatitis (P = 0.004). No relationship was found between CCSVI and impaired iron metabolism in patients with MS. CONCLUSIONS: CCSVI is uncommon and is a secondary epiphenomenon in MS and related to more neurological disability and the presence of varicose veins at the legs.

Concepts: Chronic venous insufficiency, Medicine, Telangiectasia, Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, Vein, Sclerotherapy, Varicose veins, Multiple sclerosis


BACKGROUND: Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA) is one of the most accepted treatment options for varicose veins. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the new radial fiber slim (ELVeS-radial-slim kit™) for the 1470 nm diode laser in perforator veins with a 1 month follow-up. METHODS: Our prospective observational cohort study comprised 69 perforating veins in 55 patients. Ninety percent of all patients were in the CEAP-stage C3-C6. The radial fiber slim was used to occlude the perforating vein and the great or small saphenous vein in the same procedure. The primary efficacy endpoint of the study was ultrasonographically proven elimination of venous reflux in the perforating vein after at least one month. Secondary efficacy and further safety end points after one month were as follows: (1) sonographic exclusion of recanalization of the treated vein segments, (2) deep vein thrombosis (DVT), clinical pulmonary embolism (PE), or superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) as defined by objective testing, (3) death from any cause, (4) persistent clinical complaints such as pain and paresthesia. RESULTS: Follow-up could be completed in all patients. In all treated perforating varicose veins, occlusion with elimination of reflux could be demonstrated immediately after the procedure. After one month 95.6% of the treated veins were still occluded (67/69). During follow-up, we did not diagnose any DVT, PE or SVT in the area related to the treated perforating vein. No patient died. One patient reported paresthesia distally of the puncture site. CONCLUSION: Endovenous laser treatment of varicose perforating veins with 1470 nm diode laser using the radial fiber slim is effective and safe with low recanalization rates during 1-month follow-up.

Concepts: Vascular surgery, Sclerotherapy, Great saphenous vein, Varicose veins, Superficial vein, Deep vein, Deep vein thrombosis, Vein


BACKGROUND: Varicose veins are a common entity presenting a worldwide distribution. Although they are usually benign, sometimes are proved to be a threatening condition. Massive hemorrhage is an unusual complication of this common venous pathology that demands immediate medical intervention. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 66-year-old woman found dead in her house surrounded by a large quantity of blood. Autopsy revealed a 7 mm ulcer on the internal surface of the left lower leg communicating with a varicose vein, signs of exsanguinations and liver cirrhosis. Toxicological analysis was negative. CONCLUSION: Massive hemorrhage from a ruptured varicosity is a severe medical emergency. Awareness of the risk of massive hemorrhage may provoke preventive treatment to be undertaken so as terminal loss of consciousness and a subsequent unattended death to be averted.

Concepts: Vascular surgery, Artery, Vein, Death, Hepatic portal vein, Varicose veins, Sclerotherapy, Blood


The aim of this article is to present a new technique for minimally invasive treatment of varicose veins disease of lower extremities.

Concepts: Minimally invasive, Sclerotherapy, Varicose veins


Endovenous laser ablation is an established alternative to surgery with stripping for the treatment of varicose veins. Ecchymoses and pain are frequently reported side effects of endovenous laser ablation. Device-related complications are rare but serious. We describe here an exceptional complication, necessitating an additional surgical procedure to remove a segment of laser fiber that had migrated into the pelvic cavity. Fortunately, severe damage had not occurred. This case highlights the importance of checking the completeness of the guidewire, catheter, and laser fiber after endovenous laser ablation.

Concepts: Medicine, Iatrogenesis, Anesthesia, Laser surgery, Varicose veins, Laser, Sclerotherapy, Surgery


We assessed the incidence of venous thromboembolism following treatment of great saphenous insufficiency by endovenous thermal ablation or foam sclerotherapy using meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials and case series.

Concepts: Saphenous nerve, Randomized controlled trial, Epidemiology, Sclerotherapy, Superficial vein, Varicose veins, Great saphenous vein, Vein