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Concept: School terminology


There is little empirical evidence of the impact of transition from primary to secondary school on obesity-related risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a change of school system on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour in pre-early adolescents.

Concepts: Cohort study, Longitudinal study, School terminology, High school, Secondary education, College, Primary education, Secondary school


Taking examinations is central to student experience at University and may cause psychological stress. Although stress is recognised to impact on food intake, the effects of undertaking examinations on students' dietary intake have not been well characterised. The purpose of this study was to assess how students' energy and nutrient intake may alter during examination periods.

Concepts: Nutrition, School terminology, Education, University, Philosophy of science, Student


Little is known about the value of clinical examination in relation to diagnostic imaging for acute groin injuries in athletes. Primary aim: to investigate whether clinical examination tests predict a positive or negative MRI result (MRI┬▒). Secondary aim: to assess accuracy of clinical tests to localise injury in MRI+ cases.

Concepts: Medical imaging, School terminology, Magnetic resonance imaging, Linguistics, Injuries, Injury, Primary education, Inequality


The objective of this study was to examine the ability of Focused Assessment Using Sonography for Trauma (FAST) to discriminate between survivors and nonsurvivors undergoing resuscitative thoracotomy (RT).

Concepts: School terminology, Medical ultrasonography, Examination


Increasing physical activity in children is a health priority. The Healthy Active Peaceful Playgrounds for Youth (HAPPY) study aimed to examine a multi-component playground intervention designed to increase the proportion of physical activity during recess and lunch of primary school students.

Concepts: School terminology, Weight loss, Primary school, Primary education, Personal life, School, Junior school, Playground


Adolescence is characterized by low moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels. Targeting the school setting can increase MVPA among a large proportion of adolescents. However, school-based physical activity interventions for adolescents remain largely ineffective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how naturally-occurring changes to school physical activity policy, recreational programming, public health resources, and the physical environment, impact adolescent MVPA over a 1-year period.

Concepts: School terminology, Tobacco smoking, Adolescence, High school, Puberty, Secondary education, College, Grammar school


Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers' child abuse detection and reporting behaviors.

Concepts: Psychology, School terminology, Report, Child, Primary school, Primary education, School, Junior school


The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674) of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

Concepts: Demography, Effectiveness, School terminology, Education, Sociology, Efficacy, Higher education, Examination


Secondary health care services have been under considerable pressure in England as attendance rates increase, resulting in longer waiting times and greater demands on staff. This study’s aim was to examine the association between continuity of care and risk of emergency hospital admission among older adults.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Health insurance, Hospital, School terminology, Illness, Secondary school, Massachusetts


IMPORTANCE Schools present highly desirable marketing environments for food and beverage companies. However, most marketed items are nutritionally poor. OBJECTIVE To examine national trends in student exposure to selected school-based commercialism measures from 2007 through 2012. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Annual nationally representative cross-sectional studies were evaluated in US public elementary, middle, and high schools with use of a survey of school administrators. EXPOSURES School-based commercialism, including exclusive beverage contracts and associated incentives, profits, and advertising; corporate food vending and associated incentives and profits; posters/advertisements for soft drinks, fast food, or candy; use of food coupons as incentives; event sponsorships; and fast food available to students. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Changes over time in school-based commercialism as well as differences by student body racial/ethnic distribution and socioeconomic status. RESULTS Although some commercialism measures-especially those related to beverage vending-have shown significant decreases over time, most students at all academic levels continued to attend schools with one or more types of school-based commercialism in 2012. Overall, exposure to school-based commercialism increased significantly with grade level. For 63.7% of elementary school students, the most frequent type of commercialism was food coupons used as incentives. For secondary students, the type of commercialism most prevalent in schools was exclusive beverage contracts, which were in place in schools attended by 49.5% of middle school students and 69.8% of high school students. Exposure to elementary school coupons, as well as middle and high school exclusive beverage contracts, was significantly more likely for students attending schools with mid or low (vs high) student body socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Most US elementary, middle, and high school students attend schools where they are exposed to commercial efforts aimed at obtaining food or beverage sales or developing brand recognition and loyalty for future sales. Although there have been significant decreases over time in many of the measures examined, the continuing high prevalence of school-based commercialism calls for, at minimum, clear and enforceable standards on the nutritional content of all foods and beverages marketed to youth in school settings.

Concepts: School terminology, Middle school, High school, College, Secondary school, Educational stages, Grammar school, School types