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Concept: Scar


Every element or cell in the human body produces substances that communicate and respond in an autocrine or paracrine mode, consequently affecting organs and structures that are seemingly far from each other. The same also applies to the skin. In fact, when the integrity of the skin has been altered, or when its healing process is disturbed, it becomes a source of symptoms that are not merely cutaneous. The skin is an organ, and similar to any other structure, it has different functions in addition to connections with the central and peripheral nervous system. This article examines pathological responses produced by scars, analyzing definitions and differences. At the same time, it considers the subcutaneous fascias, as this connective structure is altered when there is a discontinuous cutaneous surface. The consequence is an ample symptomatology, which is not limited to the body area where the scar is located, such as a postural or trigeminal disorder.

Concepts: Nervous system, Scar, Wound healing, Collagen, Healing, Organ, Skin, Human anatomy


Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body. Its excessive synthesis results in fibrosis of various organs. Fibrosis is a major medical problem without an existing cure. Excessive synthesis of type I collagen in fibrosis is primarily due to stabilization of collagen mRNAs. We recently reported that intermediate filaments composed of vimentin regulate collagen synthesis by stabilizing collagen mRNAs. Vimentin is a primary target of Withaferin-A (WF-A). Therefore, we hypothesized that WF-A may reduce type I collagen production by disrupting vimentin filaments and decreasing the stability of collagen mRNAs. This study is to determine if WF-A exhibits anti-fibrotic properties in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of its action. In lung, skin and heart fibroblasts WF-A disrupted vimentin filaments at concentrations of 0.5-1.5 µM and reduced 3 fold the half-lives of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) mRNAs and protein expression. In addition, WF-A inhibited TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of TGF-β1 receptor I, Smad3 phosphorylation and transcription of collagen genes. WF-A also inhibited in vitro activation of primary hepatic stellate cells and decreased their type I collagen expression. In mice, administration of 4 mg/kg WF-A daily for 2 weeks reduced isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis by 50%. Our findings provide strong evidence that Withaferin-A could act as an anti-fibrotic compound against fibroproliferative diseases, including, but not limited to, cardiac interstitial fibrosis.

Concepts: Protein, Bone, Gene, Scar, Collagen, Fibrosis, Heart, In vitro


Although regeneration via the reprogramming of one cell lineage to another occurs in fish and amphibians, it is not observed in mammals. We discovered in mouse that during wound healing adipocytes regenerate from myofibroblasts, a cell type thought to be differentiated and non-adipogenic. Myofibroblast reprogramming required neogenic hair follicles, which triggered BMP signaling and then activation of adipocyte transcription factors expressed during development. Overexpression of the BMP antagonist, noggin, in hair follicles or deletion of the BMP receptor in myofibroblasts prevented adipocyte formation. Adipocytes formed from human keloid fibroblasts when treated with either BMP or when placed with human hair follicles in vitro. Thus, we identify the myofibroblast as a plastic cell type that may be manipulated to treat scars in humans.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Gene expression, Human, Scar, Wound healing, Chromosome, Cytoplasm


CNS injury often severs axons. Scar tissue that forms locally at the lesion site is thought to block axonal regeneration, resulting in permanent functional deficits. We report that inhibiting the generation of progeny by a subclass of pericytes led to decreased fibrosis and extracellular matrix deposition after spinal cord injury in mice. Regeneration of raphespinal and corticospinal tract axons was enhanced and sensorimotor function recovery improved following spinal cord injury in animals with attenuated pericyte-derived scarring. Using optogenetic stimulation, we demonstrate that regenerated corticospinal tract axons integrated into the local spinal cord circuitry below the lesion site. The number of regenerated axons correlated with improved sensorimotor function recovery. In conclusion, attenuation of pericyte-derived fibrosis represents a promising therapeutic approach to facilitate recovery following CNS injury.

Concepts: Neuron, Spinal cord, Scar, Wound healing, Collagen, Extracellular matrix, Medulla oblongata, Corticospinal tract


Striae gravidarum (stretch marks developing during pregnancy) occur in 50% to 90% of women. They appear as red or purple lines or streaks that fade slowly to leave pale lines or marks on the skin. The abdomen, breasts and thighs are commonly affected. The exact cause of stretch marks is unclear and no preparation has yet been shown to be effective in preventing the development of stretch marks. They are a source of significant anxiety for women, impacting on their quality of life.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Scar, Obstetrics, Stretch marks, Cocoa butter


Burn scars remain a serious physical and psychological problem for the affected people. Clinical studies as well as basic scientific research have shown that medical needling can significantly increase the quality of burn scars with comparatively low risk and stress for the patient with regards to skin elasticity, moisture, erythema and transepidermal water loss. However, medical needling has no influence on repigmentation of large hypopigmented scars. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether two established methods - needling (for improvement of scar quality) and non-cultured autologous skin cell suspension (for repigmentation) - can be successfully combined. Twenty subjects with mean age of 33 years (6-60 years) with scars from deep second and third degree burns have been treated. The average treated surface area was 94cm(2) (15-250cm(2)) and was focused on prominent areas such as the face, neck, chest and arm. Percutaneous collagen induction or “medical needling” was performed using a roller covered with 3mm long needles. The roller is vertically, horizontally and diagonally rolled over the scar, inducing microtrauma. Then, non-cultured autologous skin cell suspension (NCASCS) was produced and applied using the ReNovaCell Autologous Cell Harvesting Device (Avita Medical), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The patients were followed 12 months postoperatively. Pigmentation changes were measured objectively, as well as with patient and observer ratings. Patient satisfaction/preference was also obtained. Taken together, the pigmentation ratings and objective measures indicate individual improvement in 17 of the study participants. The melanin increases seen 12 months after NCASCS treatment are statistically significant. Medical needling in combination with NCASCS shows promise for repigmentation of burn cars.

Concepts: Statistics, Patient, Scar, Collagen, Organ, Skin, Epidermis, Burn


Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process that aims to re-establish the original structure of the skin and its functions. Among other disorders, peripheral neuropathies are known to severely impair wound healing capabilities of the skin, revealing the importance of skin innervation for proper repair. Here, we report that peripheral glia are crucially involved in this process. Using a mouse model of wound healing, combined with in vivo fate mapping, we show that injury activates peripheral glia by promoting de-differentiation, cell-cycle re-entry and dissemination of the cells into the wound bed. Moreover, injury-activated glia upregulate the expression of many secreted factors previously associated with wound healing and promote myofibroblast differentiation by paracrine modulation of TGF-β signalling. Accordingly, depletion of these cells impairs epithelial proliferation and wound closure through contraction, while their expansion promotes myofibroblast formation. Thus, injury-activated glia and/or their secretome might have therapeutic potential in human wound healing disorders.

Concepts: DNA, Gene expression, Scar, Wound healing, Regulation of gene expression, Skin, Glial cell, Glial cells


In adult skin wounds, collagen expression rapidly re-establishes the skin barrier, although the resultant scar is aesthetically and functionally inferior to unwounded tissue. Although TGFβ signaling and fibroblasts are known to be responsible for scar-associated collagen production, there are currently no prophylactic treatments for scar management. Fibroblasts in crosstalk with wound keratinocytes orchestrate collagen expression, although the precise paracrine pathways involved remain poorly understood. Herein, we showed that the matricellular protein, angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), accelerated wound closure and reduced collagen expression in diabetic and ANGPTL4-knockout mice. Similar observations were made in wild-type rat wounds. Using human fibroblasts as a preclinical model for mechanistic studies, we systematically elucidated that ANGPTL4 binds to cadherin-11, releasing membrane-bound β-catenin which translocate to the nucleus and transcriptionally upregulate the expression of Inhibitor of DNA-binding/differentiation protein 3 (ID3). ID3 interacts with scleraxis, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, to inhibit scar-associated collagen types 1α2 and 3α1 production by fibroblasts. We also showed ANGPTL4 interaction with cadherin-11 in human scar tissue. Our findings highlight a central role for matricellular proteins such as ANGPTL4 in the attenuation of collagen expression and may have a broader implication for other fibrotic pathologies.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Gene expression, Scar, Wound healing, Collagen, Skin, Basic-helix-loop-helix


BACKGROUND: Many Asians receive epicanthoplasty to improve their medial epicanthal fold.Excessive performance of such surgery may cause multiple unwanted results, but there is no report on any restoration method for an overcorrected result of epicanthoplasty. Accordingly, the authors have created a new method for reversely restoring the excessively corrected medial epicanthal fold using skin-redraping epicanthoplasty (Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:703-710). METHODS: During the interval between January 2009 and April 2011, 35 patients received surgery for restoration of the epicanthal fold using the authors' method, which involves sufficiently elevating the skin flap and redraping it to reconstruct the epicanthal fold. This method is very simple to design and perform, and it effectively covers the excessively exposed lacrimal lake. In addition, it can be used independently of the type of prior epicanthoplasty. RESULTS: After the surgery, 2 patients experienced overcorrection, and we repeated the epicanthoplasty. In the other patients, there was no severe complication except for mild redness, a condition that improved after several months. The mean measured distance between the medial canthi after the surgery was 36.8 mm, corresponding to a total lengthening effect of 4.5 mm. This improved the aggressive facial expression caused by the exposed lacrimal lake, and the eyes no longer appeared to be too close together. Moreover, in the case of patients who had more visible scars due to prior epicanthoplasty on the medial epicanthal area, the overall scar length decreased. CONCLUSIONS: This method is simple in design and easy to perform. It can also control the degree of restoration with an additional advantage of reducing a prior scar. Using this method, we could effectively restore the overcorrected epicanthal fold.

Concepts: Causality, Scar, Eye, Skin, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, FN SCAR, 2011, Lacrimal lake


To map skin temperature kinetics, and by extension skin blood flow throughout normal or abnormal repair of full-thickness cutaneous wounds created on the horse body and limb, using infrared thermography.

Concepts: Scar, Wound healing, Healing, Temperature, Horse, Black body, Thermography, Thermal radiation