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Concept: Saturation


Vegetarian diets exclude all animal flesh and are being widely adopted by an increasing number of people; however, effects on blood lipid concentrations remain unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively assess the overall effects of vegetarian diets on blood lipids.

Concepts: Protein, Archaea, Epidemiology, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Evaluation methods, Saturation


Background. Overdose with lipophilic drugs, such as amitriptyline, may cause cardiotoxicity in overdose. Severe poisoning can be resistant to traditional treatments. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been recommended as a novel therapy for the treatment of such overdoses; however, a little is known about the effects of ILE-infusion on drug concentration and haemodynamics in the early/absorptive phase after oral poisoning. Method. Thirty minutes after oro-gastric administration of amitriptyline (70 mg/kg), either 20% intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE), 8.4% sodium bicarbonate or Hartmann’s solution was infused to anaesthetized and ventilated rodents (n = 10 per group). Heart rate, blood pressure, cutaneous ECG - QRS interval duration (QRS-d), and survival were serially recorded over 120 min. Blood drug concentrations were also collected during this period. Continuous variables were compared using one-way ANOVA. Results. ILE infusion significantly decreased the survival compared to other treatments (10% ILE vs 70% bicarbonate vs 70% Hartmann’s solution, p = 0.005). There was a gradual prolongation of QRS-d and fall in blood pressure over time compared to baseline (T0) measurement for both ILE and Hartmann’s solution treatments. This was associated with significantly increased blood AMI concentration with ILE treatment at T60, T90 and T120 min to the other treatments (p < 0.02). Conclusion. Administration of ILE early after oral amitriptyline overdose resulted in worse survival and no improvement in haemodynamics. In addition, blood amitriptyline concentrations were higher in the ILE-treated group. This suggests that either drug absorption from the gastrointestinal-tract was facilitated or drug redistribution was retarded when ILE was given early after oral poisoning.

Concepts: Intravenous fluids, Concentration, Chemistry, Drugs, Saturation, Lactic acid, Solution, QRS complex


Pyromellitate-bridged cyclodextrin nanosponges (CDNSs) evolved from sol into gel state upon gradual increase of the concentration from 0.2 to 2000 mg mL(-1) in water. The enantiodifferentiating geometrical photoisomerizations of (Z)-cyclooctene and (Z,Z)-1,3-cyclooctadiene sensitized by CDNS at various concentrations were critically affected by the phase transition of CDNS to afford the corresponding (E)- and (E,Z)-isomers in the highest enantiomeric excesses in the gel state.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Chemical equilibrium, Phase, Saturation, Solution, Phase diagram, Total dissolved solids


Depending on the length of their carbon backbone and their saturation status, natural fatty acids have rather distinct biological effects. Thus, longevity of model organisms is increased by extra supply of the most abundant natural cis-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, but not by that of the most abundant saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid. Here, we systematically compared the capacity of different saturated, cis-unsaturated and alien (industrial or ruminant) trans-unsaturated fatty acids to provoke cellular stress in vitro, on cultured human cells expressing a battery of distinct biosensors that detect signs of autophagy, Golgi stress and the unfolded protein response. In contrast to cis-unsaturated fatty acids, trans-unsaturated fatty acids failed to stimulate signs of autophagy including the formation of GFP-LC3B-positive puncta, production of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, and activation of the transcription factor TFEB. When combined effects were assessed, several trans-unsaturated fatty acids including elaidic acid (the trans-isomer of oleate), linoelaidic acid, trans-vaccenic acid and palmitelaidic acid, were highly efficient in suppressing autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by palmitic, but not by oleic acid. Elaidic acid also inhibited autophagy induction by palmitic acid in vivo, in mouse livers and hearts. We conclude that the well-established, though mechanistically enigmatic toxicity of trans-unsaturated fatty acids may reside in their capacity to abolish cytoprotective stress responses induced by saturated fatty acids.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fatty acid, Fatty acids, Butter, Saturation, Saturated fat, Oleic acid, Unsaturated fat


Vitrification techniques employ a relatively high concentration of cryoprotectant in vitrification solutions. Exposure of oocytes to high concentrations of cryoprotectant is known to damage the oocytes via both cytotoxic and osmotic effects. Therefore, the key to successful vitrification of oocytes is to strike a balance between the usage of minimal concentration of cryoprotectant without compromising their cryoprotective actions.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Saturation, Solution, Zygote, Ethylene glycol, Oocyte, 1979 albums


A series of strong polycations is synthesized through the anionic polymerization of 2-vinylpyridine, followed by subsequent quaternization of the resulting polymer. Polycations based on quaternized 2-vinylpyridine (PVPQs) with degrees of polymerization (DP) from 20 to 440 are adsorbed on the surface of small anionic liposomes. Liposome/PVPQ complexes are characterized by using a number of physicochemical methods. All PVPQs are totally adsorbed onto the liposome surface up to a certain concentration at which saturation is reached (which is specific for each PVPQ). The integrity of the adsorbed liposomes remains intact. Short PVPQs interact with anionic lipids localized on the outer membrane leaflet, whereas long PVPQs extract anionic lipids from the inner to outer leaflet. Complexes tend to aggregate, and the largest aggregates are formed when the initial charge of the liposomes is fully neutralized by the charge of the PVPQ. PVPQs with intermediate DPs demonstrate behavioral features of both short and long PVPQs. These results are important for the interpretation of the biological effects of cationic polymers and the selection of cationic polymers for biomedical applications.

Concepts: Polymer, Monomer, Membrane biology, Saturation, DPS, Liposome, Interior, Polymersome


This work aimed to find an optimum culture medium for green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and investigate its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition. Four different media were tested. Chlorella medium was the best medium for lipid yield. Among four nitrogen sources tested, KNO3 produced the highest lipid yield. When varied the nitrogen concentrations, this strain gave the highest lipid yield at the highest nitrogen level. When cultivated in the best medium and nitrogen source and level for 30days, and then cultivated further for 14days in the medium with no nitrogen, the highest lipid content and yield were 49.94±0.82% and 2.71±0.02gL(-1), respectively. C16:0 fatty acid was the major fatty acid found. Fatty acid profiles of B. braunii KMITL cultivated in Chlorella medium with 1.25gL(-1) KNO3 gave the best biodiesel properties with the lowest iodine value, maximum cetane number, and lowest degree of unsaturation.

Concepts: Fatty acid, Lipid, Saturation, Glycerol, Degree of unsaturation


Partition coefficients of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPA) are needed in the estimation of sampling rates for PUF disk passive air samplers. We determined KPA in field experiments by conducting long-term (24-48 h) air sampling to saturate PUF traps and shorter runs (2-4 h) to measure air concentrations. Sampling events were done at daily mean temperatures ranging from 1.9 to 17.5 °C. Target compounds were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DiBA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TriBA). KPA (mL g(-1)) was calculated from quantities on the PUF traps at saturation (ng g(-1)) divided by air concentrations (ng mL(-1)). Enthalpies of PUF-to-air transfer (ΔHPA, kJ mol(-1)) were determined from the slopes of log KPA/mL g(-1) versus 1/T(K) for HCB and the bromoanisoles, KPA of α-HCH was measured only at 14.3 to 17.5 °C and ΔHPA was not determined. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) at 15 °C were HCB = 7.37; α-HCH = 8.08; 2,4-DiBA = 7.26 and 2,4,6-TriBA = 7.26. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) were compared with predictions based on an octanol-air partition coefficient (log KOA) model (Shoeib and Harner, 2002a) and a polyparameter linear free relationship (pp-LFER) model (Kamprad and Goss, 2007) using different sets of solute parameters. Predicted KP values varied by factors of 3 to over 30, depending on the compound and the model. Such discrepancies provide incentive for experimental measurements of KPA for other SVOCs.

Concepts: Measurement, Chemistry, Solubility, Solvent, Organic chemistry, Saturation, Partition coefficient, Multiplication


The chlorate-bromide reaction, ClO3(-) + 6Br(-) + 6H(+) → 3Br2 + Cl(-) + 3H2O, was followed at the Br3(-)/Br2 isosbestic point (446 nm). A fifth-order rate law was found: (1)/3 d[Br2]/dt = k[ClO3(-)][Br(-)][H(+)](3) (k = 5.10 × 10(-6) s(-1) L(4) mol(-4)) at 25 °C and I = 2.4 mol L(-1). At high bromide concentrations, the bromide order becomes close to zero, indicating a saturation profile on bromide concentration, similar to the chloride saturation profile observed in the chlorate-chloride reaction. A mechanism is proposed that considers the formation of the intermediate BrOClO2(2-), similar to the intermediate ClOClO2(2-) proposed in the mechanism of the chlorate-chloride reaction.

Concepts: Concentration, Saturation, Solution, Chemical kinetics, Reaction rate, Molar concentration, Order of reaction, Isosbestic point


Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) was fabricated from rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) kernel fat stabilized with Tween 80 in this present work. The influence of the Tween 80 concentration (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0wt%) and solidification temperature (5 and 25°C) on the characteristics and stability of the NLC were investigated. The results showed that an increase in the Tween 80 concentration caused decreased zeta-potential (ζ-potential) and particle size (Z-average) with no significant effect on the polydispersity index (PDI). Lipid particles in the NLC at all Tween 80 concentrations had a tendency to grow and the PDI tended to increase due to Ostwald ripening upon storage over 28days. At least 0.2wt% Tween 80 concentrations could be used to stabilize 1wt% rambutan NLC. The solidification temperature affected the microstructure, melting behavior and stability of rambutan NLC. Pre-solidification at 5°C could create stable NLC with monodispersed-spherical lipid particles. Consequently, these stable NLC particles produced from rambutan kernel fat may serve as useful carriers for the delivery of bioactive lipophilic nutraceuticals.

Concepts: Saturation, Solution, Centrifugation, Stability, Lychee, Rambutan, Nephelium, Pulasan