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Concept: Sarcoma

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Soft tissue sarcomas comprise approximately 1% of all adult solid malignancies. While chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for patients with metastatic or inoperable disease, overall survival for these patients is approximately 12 months, highlighting the need for novel agents. Both laboratory and clinical data have suggested that antiangiogenic agents may have a role in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas. Pazopanib is a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic activity. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III PALETTE (pazopanib for metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma) study demonstrated improved progression-free survival in patients receiving pazopanib compared with placebo. In this review, we discuss the rationale and clinical evidence for the use of pazopanib in the treatment of metastatic and inoperable soft tissue sarcomas.

Concepts: Cancer, Signal transduction, Soft tissue sarcoma, Types of cancer, Lymphoma, Soft tissue, Sarcoma, Alveolar soft part sarcoma

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The chemokine receptor CCR7 mediates lymphoid dissemination of many cancers, including lymphomas and epithelial carcinomas, thus representing an attractive therapeutic target. Previous results have highlighted the potential of the anti-CCR7 monoclonal antibodies to inhibit migration in transwell assays. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of an anti-CCR7 antibody in a xenografted human mantle cell lymphoma model.

Concepts: Immune system, Protein, Cancer, Signal transduction, Lymph node, Types of cancer, Sarcoma, Mantle cell lymphoma

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Background:Organically produced foods are less likely than conventionally produced foods to contain pesticide residues.Methods:We examined the hypothesis that eating organic food may reduce the risk of soft tissue sarcoma, breast cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other common cancers in a large prospective study of 623 080 middle-aged UK women. Women reported their consumption of organic food and were followed for cancer incidence over the next 9.3 years. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks for cancer incidence by the reported frequency of consumption of organic foods.Results:At baseline, 30%, 63% and 7% of women reported never, sometimes, or usually/always eating organic food, respectively. Consumption of organic food was not associated with a reduction in the incidence of all cancer (n=53 769 cases in total) (RR for usually/always vs never=1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.07), soft tissue sarcoma (RR=1.37, 95% CI: 0.82-2.27), or breast cancer (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.15), but was associated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.96).Conclusions:In this large prospective study there was little or no decrease in the incidence of cancer associated with consumption of organic food, except possibly for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 27 March 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.148 www.bjcancer.com.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Soft tissue sarcoma, Chemotherapy, Food, Types of cancer, Lymphoma, Sarcoma

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Sarcomas are a broad family of mesenchymal malignancies exhibiting remarkable histologic diversity. We describe the multi-platform molecular landscape of 206 adult soft tissue sarcomas representing 6 major types. Along with novel insights into the biology of individual sarcoma types, we report three overarching findings: (1) unlike most epithelial malignancies, these sarcomas (excepting synovial sarcoma) are characterized predominantly by copy-number changes, with low mutational loads and only a few genes (TP53, ATRX, RB1) highly recurrently mutated across sarcoma types; (2) within sarcoma types, genomic and regulomic diversity of driver pathways defines molecular subtypes associated with patient outcome; and (3) the immune microenvironment, inferred from DNA methylation and mRNA profiles, associates with outcome and may inform clinical trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Overall, this large-scale analysis reveals previously unappreciated sarcoma-type-specific changes in copy number, methylation, RNA, and protein, providing insights into refining sarcoma therapy and relationships to other cancer types.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Cancer, Mutation, Molecular biology, Soft tissue sarcoma, Sarcoma

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Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSE) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared with vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability. Mucosal bioactivity, defined as 2-fold or greater upregulation of NQO1 mRNA, was observed in 6 of 9 evaluable participants ingesting glucoraphanin-rich BSE; 3 of 6 ingesting sulforaphane-rich BSE; and 3 of 9 after topical-only exposure to sulforaphane-rich BSE. Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 1-11. ©2016 AACR.

Concepts: DNA, Epidemiology, Cancer, Oncology, Epithelium, Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Sarcoma

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ABSTRACT:: Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) presents diagnostic challenges due to histologic mimics and limited immunohistochemical staining. Although S100 usually stains DM, other melanoma markers (HMB-45 and Melan-A) are often negative. Dermal/subcutaneous mimics of DM [spindle cell/poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), and sarcoma] show negative or unreliable immunohistochemical staining. Recently, SOX10 expression has been shown to be a sensitive and specific marker of DM. However, there are no published studies comparing the sensitivity and specificity of SOX10 for DM compared with its most common histologic mimics of the dermis/subcutis. We examined 76 cases, including DM (n = 15), spindle cell/poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 18), AFX (n = 13), sarcoma with spindled morphology (n = 20), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) (n = 10). Most (75%, 15/20) of sarcomas were centered in the dermis/subcutis and included sarcoma not otherwise specified, DFSP with sarcomatous transformation and myxofibrosarcoma. SOX10 was diffusely positive in 100% (15/15) of DMs and showed focal staining in 30% (3/10) of MPNSTs. All other tumors were negative for SOX10 [0% (0/18) of carcinomas, 0% (0/13) of AFXs, 0% (0/20) of sarcomas]. In conclusion, SOX10 is a highly useful marker to confirm the diagnosis of DM. In our study, SOX10 showed 100% sensitivity for DM and SOX10 was negative in all histologic mimics of the dermis/subcutis, including spindle cell carcinoma, AFX and sarcomas. Similar to S-100 protein, some MPNSTs show scattered positivity but did not show diffuse positivity seen in DM.

Concepts: Cancer, Sensitivity and specificity, Anatomical pathology, Types of cancer, Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Sarcoma, Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

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OBJECTIVES:: Patients who develop metastatic disease from soft tissue sarcoma have a poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to identify metastatic survival rates and identify prognostic variables that predict for these outcomes. METHODS:: Between 2000 and 2010, 182 patients with stage I to IV primary soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity and trunk were treated with multimodality treatment. Fifty-five patients developed or presented with metastasis. We retrospectively analyzed prognostic factors for metastatic survival. Metastatic survival between groups was compared with the log-rank test. Survival curves were estimated by Kaplan-Meier plots. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS:: Median follow-up was 3.1 years. Median metastatic survival was 24.2 months. Median metastatic survival in those undergoing multimodality therapies was 40 versus 22 months in those receiving single modality treatments. In single predictor Cox models, age, stage, number of lung metastases, location of metastases, and primary disease were significant for metastatic survival. On multivariate analysis, number of pulmonary metastases, histology, stage, and location of primary disease predicted for metastatic survival. Patients who had pulmonary-only disease had improved metastatic survival versus those that had extrapulmonary with or without pulmonary metastatic disease (38 vs. 15 mo). Patients who had ≤5 pulmonary metastasis had improved metastatic survival versus those that had >5 pulmonary lesions (55 vs. 22 mo). CONCLUSIONS:: This analysis shows that >5 pulmonary metastasis, malignant fibrous histiocytoma histology, stage III disease, and proximal lower extremity sarcomas are associated with decreased metastatic survival. Moreover, aggressive multimodality management of metastatic disease may prolong metastatic survival.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Extracellular matrix, Soft tissue sarcoma, Sarcoma, Malignant fibrous histiocytoma

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A 77-year-old male patient presented to our attention with violaceous nodular lesions on the skin of his hands and lower extremities. Clinical and histologic examination supported the diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma. A first-line systemic chemotherapy based on liposomal doxorubicin at a dosage of 40 mg/m every 3 weeks for 5 cycles was carried out, resulting in partial resolution of skin lesions. However, 1 year later, a relapse of the disease in the lower limbs and a new lesion of the left eyelid were found, therefore the patient began a second-line therapy with 100 mg/m paclitaxel every 2 weeks. After 8 cycles of therapy, we observed a complete remission of eyelid tumor and a partial response of lower limbs lesions up to 6 months of follow up. In conclusion, eyelid Kaposi sarcoma was successfully treated with paclitaxel every 2 weeks, obtaining a complete response.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Chemotherapy, Anatomical pathology, Doxorubicin, Kaposi's sarcoma, Sarcoma, Paclitaxel

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The p53 and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR) pathways frequently are altered in sarcoma with complex genomics, such as leiomyosarcoma (LMS) or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS). The scale of genetic abnormalities in these pathways remains unknown in angiosarcoma (AS).

Concepts: Genetics, Cancer, Soft tissue sarcoma, Types of cancer, Transcription factor, Sarcoma, Pleomorphic adenoma, Hemangiosarcoma

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Liposarcomas are the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of adults, but rare in the head and neck. Recently, a subtype of dedifferentiated liposarcoma with meningiothelial-like whorls was reported and we present the first description of such a tumor in the head and neck. A 65 year old male underwent a resection of a calcified retroesophageal mass that was in close relation to the left hemithyroid and recurrent laryngeal nerve. It was resected en bloc with the left thyroid lobe. Initial pathologic evaluation suggested the mass was a schwanomma of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, but positive staining for MDM2 and CDK4 indicated the tumor was a dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Further evaluation elucidated the unique meningothelial-like whorls within the tumor. This case demonstrates dedifferentiated liposarcomas do appear in the head and neck. Furthermore, this is the first report in the head and neck of the mengiothelial-like whorling pattern type of dedifferentiated liposarcoma.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Cancer, Soft tissue sarcoma, Types of cancer, Thyroid, Liposarcoma, Sarcoma