SciCombinator

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Concept: Saphenous nerve

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) reduces pain after total knee arthroplasty without the motor blockade associated with epidural analgesia or femoral nerve block. However, the duration and efficacy of LIA are not sufficient. A saphenous nerve block, in addition to single-dose LIA, may improve analgesia without interfering with early mobilization. METHODS: Forty patients were included in this double-blind randomized controlled trial. All patients received spinal anesthesia for surgery and single-dose LIA during the operation. An ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve catheter was placed postoperatively in the adductor canal at midthigh level. Patients were randomized into 2 groups to receive 15-mL boluses of either ropivacaine 7.5 mg/mL or saline twice daily for 2 postoperative days. RESULTS: Worst pain scores during movement on the day of surgery were significantly lower in the ropivacaine group (median [range] visual analog scale, 3 [0-7] vs 5.5 [0-10]; P < 0.050), as well as pain at rest (visual analog scale, 2 [0-8] vs 4 [0-8]; P = 0.032). Breakthrough pain occurred later in the ropivacaine group (10.5 [range, 0.5-48] hours vs 3.4 [range, 0.5-24] hours; P = 0.011). All patients in the ropivacaine group were able to ambulate on the day of surgery versus 13 patients in the control group (P = 0.004). Fewer patients had sleep disturbance on the first postoperative night in the ropivacaine group (P = 0.038). We found no differences in morphine consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of a saphenous nerve block with single-dose LIA offered better pain relief on the day of surgery than LIA alone.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Anesthesia, Pain, Morphine, Epidural, Fentanyl, Saphenous nerve, Adductor canal

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Proximal and distal (mid-thigh) ultrasound-guided continuous adductor canal block techniques have been described but not yet compared, and infusion benefits or side effects may be determined by catheter location. We hypothesized that proximal placement will result in faster onset of saphenous nerve anesthesia, without additional motor block, compared to a distal technique.

Concepts: Creativity techniques, Anatomy, Knee replacement, Great saphenous vein, Saphenous nerve, Adductor canal, Adductor hiatus

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Femoral continuous peripheral nerve blocks (CPNBs) provide effective analgesia after TKA but have been associated with quadriceps weakness and delayed ambulation. A promising alternative is adductor canal CPNB that delivers a primarily sensory blockade; however, the differential effects of these two techniques on functional outcomes after TKA are not well established.

Concepts: Femoral vein, Peripheral nervous system, Femoral nerve, Saphenous nerve, Nerve block, Adductor canal

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We assessed the incidence of venous thromboembolism following treatment of great saphenous insufficiency by endovenous thermal ablation or foam sclerotherapy using meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials and case series.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Randomized controlled trial, Vein, Great saphenous vein, Varicose veins, Sclerotherapy, Saphenous nerve, Superficial vein

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Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common procedure resulting in significant post-operative pain. Percutaneous cryoneurolysis targeting the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve and anterior femoral cutaneous nerve could relieve post-operative knee pain by temporarily blocking sensory nerve conduction.

Concepts: Nervous system, Sensory system, Knee replacement, Nerve conduction study, Sensory receptor, Femoral nerve, Saphenous nerve, Sensory neuron

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Cyanoacrylate closure of the great saphenous vein with the VenaSeal™ Closure System is a relatively new modality. Studies have been limited to moderate-sized great saphenous veins and some have mandated postoperative compression stockings. We report the results of a prospective study of cyanoacrylate closure for the treatment of great saphenous vein, small saphenous veins, and/or accessory saphenous veins up to 20 mm in diameter.

Concepts: Great saphenous vein, Varicose veins, Saphenous nerve, Superficial vein, Dorsal venous arch of the foot, Small saphenous vein, Veins of the lower limb

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Inadequate pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impedes recovery, increases the risk of postoperative complications, and results in patient dissatisfaction. Although the preemptive use of multimodal measures is currently considered the principle of pain management after TKA, no gold standard pain management protocol has been established. Peripheral nerve blocks have been used as part of a contemporary multimodal approach to pain control after TKA. Femoral nerve block (FNB) has excellent postoperative analgesia and is now a commonly used analgesic modality for TKA pain control. However, FNB leads to quadriceps muscle weakness, which impairs early mobilization and increases the risk of postoperative falls. In this context, emerging evidence suggests that adductor canal block (ACB) facilitates postoperative rehabilitation compared with FNB because it primarily provides a sensory nerve block with sparing of quadriceps strength. However, whether ACB is more appropriate for contemporary pain management after TKA remains controversial. The objective of this study was to review and summarize recent studies regarding practical issues for ACB and comparisons of analgesic efficacy and functional recovery between ACB and FNB in patients who have undergone TKA.

Concepts: Pain, Quadriceps femoris muscle, Saphenous nerve

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By targeting the distal branches of the femoral nerve in the mid-thigh, the adductor canal block (ACB) can preserve quadriceps muscle strength while providing analgesia similar to a conventional femoral nerve block (FNB) for inpatients undergoing major knee surgery. In this randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial, the authors hypothesized that ACB provides postoperative analgesia that is at least as good as FNB while preserving quadriceps strength after outpatient anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Concepts: Muscle, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, Ligament, Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Cruciate ligament, Quadriceps femoris muscle, Saphenous nerve

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