SciCombinator

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Concept: Sangiovese

27

Wine aging is an important process to produce high-quality wines. Traditionally, wines are aged in oak barrel aging systems. However, due to the disadvantages of the traditional aging technology, such as lengthy time needed, high cost, etc., innovative aging technologies have been developed. These technologies involve aging wines using wood fragments, application of micro-oxygenation, aging on lees, or application of some physical methods. Moreover, wine bottling can be regarded as the second phase of wine aging and is essential for most wines. Each technology can benefit the aging process from different aspects. Traditional oak barrel aging technology is the oldest and widely accepted technology. The application of wood fragments and physical methods are promising in accelerating aging process artificially, while application of micro-oxygenation and lees is reliable to improve wine quality. This paper reviews recent developments of the wine aging technologies. The impacts of operational parameters of each technology on wine quality during aging are analyzed, and comparisons among these aging technologies are made. In addition, several strategies to produce high-quality wines in a short aging period are also proposed.

Concepts: Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chilean wine, Oak, Chardonnay, Oenology, Fermentation, Wine

22

Dramatic global increases in future numbers of people with dementia have been predicted. No multicentre population-based study powered to detect changes over time has reported dementia incidence. MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) undertook baseline interviews in populations aged 65+ years in England and Wales (1989-1994). Three areas (CFAS I) were selected for new sampling two decades later (2008-2011) with same geographical boundaries, sampling and approach methods (CFAS II). At 2 years CFAS I interviewed 5,156 (76% response) with 5,288 interviewed in CFAS II (74% response). Here we report a 20% drop in incidence (95% CI: 0-40%), driven by a reduction in men across all ages above 65. In the UK we estimate 209,600 new dementia cases per year. This study was uniquely designed to test for differences across geography and time. A reduction of age-specific incidence means that the numbers of people estimated to develop dementia in any year has remained relatively stable.

Concepts: Sangiovese, United Kingdom, Wine, Wales, Future, England, Mathematics, Age

14

In 2015, persons aged 10-24 years who were treated for nonfatal assault injuries in emergency departments (EDs) in the United States accounted for 32% of the approximately 1.5 million patients of all ages that EDs treated for nonfatal assault injuries (1). CDC analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) to examine 2001-2015 trends in nonfatal assault injuries among youths treated in EDs, by sex and age group, and to assess current rates by sex, age group, mechanism of injury, and disposition (1). Rates for 2001-2015 were significantly higher among males than among females and among young adults aged 20-24 years than among youths aged 10-14 and 15-19 years. During 2011-2015, rates declined for all groups. The 2015 rate among persons aged 10-24 years was 753.2 per 100,000 population, the lowest in the 15-year study period. Despite encouraging trends, the assault rate among young persons remains high. Rates in 2015 were higher among males, persons aged 20-24 years, and those who incurred intentional strike or hit injuries. Nearly one in 10 patients were admitted to the hospital, transferred to another hospital, or held for observation. Youth violence prevention strategies, including primary prevention approaches that build individual skills, strengthen family relationships, or connect young persons treated in EDs to immediate and ongoing support, can be implemented to decrease injuries and fatalities (2).

Concepts: Sangiovese, Wine, Male, Age, Female, Hospital, United States, Sex

8

To analyze the frequency and trend of liver transplantation (LT) for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis in young adults aged 18 to 40 years and to assess post-LT outcomes in this age group.

Concepts: Sangiovese, Liver transplantation, Hepatitis, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Wine, Liver, United States, Cirrhosis

7

Aging leads to hypothalamic inflammation, but does so more slowly in mice whose lifespan has been extended by mutations that affect GH/IGF-1 signals. Early-life exposure to GH by injection, or to nutrient restriction in the first 3 weeks of life, also modulate both lifespan and the pace of hypothalamic inflammation. Three drugs extend lifespan of UM-HET3 mice in a sex-specific way: acarbose (ACA), 17-α-estradiol (17αE2), and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), with more dramatic longevity increases in males in each case. In this study, we examined the effect of these anti-aging drugs on neuro-inflammation in hypothalamus and hippocampus. We found that age-associated hypothalamic inflammation is reduced in males but not in females at 12 months of age by ACA and 17αE2 and at 22 months of age in NDGA-treated mice. The three drugs blocked indices of hypothalamic reactive gliosis associated with aging, such as Iba-1-positive microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes, as well as age-associated overproduction of TNF-α. This effect was not observed in drug-treated female mice or in the hippocampus of the drug-treated animals. On the other hand, caloric restriction (CR; an intervention that extends the lifespan in both sexes) significantly reduced hypothalamic microglia and TNF-α in both sexes at 12 months of age. Together, these results suggest that the extent of drug-induced changes in hypothalamic inflammatory processes is sexually dimorphic in a pattern that parallels the effects of these agents on mouse longevity and that mimics the changes seen, in both sexes, of long-lived nutrient restricted or mutant mice.

Concepts: Sangiovese, Gender, Wine, Sexual dimorphism, Female, Gerontology, Male, Sex

4

The prevalence of thyroid cancer survivors is rising rapidly due to the combination of an increasing incidence, high survival rates, and a young age at diagnosis. The physical and psychosocial morbidity of thyroid cancer has not been adequately described and we therefore sought to improve our understanding of the impact of thyroid cancer on quality of life (QoL) by conducting a large-scale survivorship study.

Concepts: Sangiovese, Quality of life, North America, Wine, Quality, Oncology, Medical statistics, Epidemiology

3

Colorectal cancer (CRC) tends to occur at older age; however, CRC incidence rates have been rising sharply among young age groups. The increasing prevalence of obesity is recognized as a major risk, yet the mechanistic underpinnings remain poorly understood. Using a diet-induced obesity mouse model, we identified obesity-associated molecular changes in the colonic epithelium of young and aged mice, and we further investigated whether the changes were reversed after weight loss. Transcriptome analysis indicated that obesity-related colonic cellular metabolic switch favoring long-chain fatty acid oxidation happened in young mice, while obesity-associated downregulation of negative feedback regulators of pro-proliferative signaling pathways occurred in older mice. Strikingly, colonic DNA methylome was pre-programmed by obesity at young age, priming for a tumor-prone gene signature after aging. Furthermore, obesity-related changes were substantially preserved after short-term weight loss, but they were largely reversed after long-term weight loss. We provided mechanistic insights into increased CRC risk in obesity.

Concepts: Gene, Senescence, Sangiovese, Wine, Nutrition, Cancer, Fatty acid metabolism, Fatty acid

3

Correct drug prescription in the elderly is a difficult task that requires careful survey of the current pharmacological therapies. In this article, we reviewed the drug prescriptions provided to 860 persons aged 65 years or over, residing in a small city of Lombardy, Italy.

Concepts: Sangiovese, Gerontology, Old age, Medical prescription, Italy, Milan, Pharmacology, Prescription drug

3

Objectives. We estimated the effects on assault rates of lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age in New Zealand from 20 to 18 years. We hypothesized that the law change would increase assaults among young people aged 18 to 19 years (the target group) and those aged 15 to 17 years via illegal sales or alcohol supplied by older friends or family members. Methods. Using Poisson regression, we examined weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization from 1995 to 2011. Outcomes were assessed separately by gender among young people aged 15 to 17 years and those aged 18 to 19 years, with those aged 20 and 21 years included as a control group. Results. Relative to young men aged 20 to 21 years, assaults increased significantly among young men aged 18 to 19 years between 1995 and 1999 (the period before the law change), as well as the postchange periods 2003 to 2007 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.39) and 2008 to 2011 (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.37). Among boys aged 15 to 17 years, assaults increased during the postchange periods 1999 to 2003 (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49) and 2004 to 2007 (IRR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.45). There were no statistically significant effects among girls and young women. Conclusions. Lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age increased weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization among young males 15 to 19 years of age. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 12, 2014: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.301889).

Concepts: Sangiovese, 1918, 1921, Epidemiology, 1, Regression analysis, Statistics, Wine

2

Affective disorders impact nearly 10% of the adult population in the United States in a given year. Synaptic dysfunction has recently emerged as a key neurobiological mechanism underlying affective disorders such as anxiety and depression. In this study, we investigate the potential role of two synaptic scaffolding proteins, neurabin and spinophilin, in regulating anxiety- and depression-related behaviors at different ages using genetically deficient mice. Loss of the neurabin gene reduces anxiety-like behavior in the elevated zero maze in young adult mice (3-5 months old), but not in middle aged mice (11-13 months old), whereas loss of spinophilin decreases anxiety in middle-aged mice, but not in young adult mice. Neurabin knockout (KO) mice also show reduced immobility in the repeated force swim test (FST) at 3-5 months, but not 11-3 months, of age, compared to age- and strain-matched wild type (WT) controls. Conversely, spinophilin KO mice display a lower level of this behavioral despair than matched WT controls after repeated FST trials at the middle age (11-13 months) but not the young age (3-5 months). Together, these data indicate that, despite their structural similarities and overlapping function in regulating synaptic cytoskeleton, the two homologs neurabin and spinophilin play important yet distinct roles in the regulation of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in an age-dependent manner. Our studies provide new insights into the complex neurobiology of affective disorders.

Concepts: Sangiovese, Wine, Gene, Middle Ages, Young adult, Psychology, Middle age, Old age