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Concept: Salt Lake County, Utah


Air samples were collected in 12 randomly selected commercial nail salons in Salt Lake County, Utah. Measurements of salon physical/chemical parameters (room volume, CO(2) levels) were obtained. Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were collected using summa air canisters and sorbent media tubes for an 8-h period. Multivariate analyses were used to identify relationships between salon physical/chemical characteristics and the VOCs found in the air samples. The ACGIH(®) additive mixing formula was also applied to determine if there were potential overexposures to the combined airborne concentrations of chemicals monitored. Methyl methacrylate was detected in 58% of the establishments despite having been banned for use in nail products by the state of Utah. Formaldehyde was found above the NIOSH REL(®) (0.016 ppm) in 58% of the establishments. Given the assortment of VOCs to which nail salon workers are potentially exposed, a combination of engineering as well as personal protective equipment is recommended.

Concepts: Volatile organic compound, Occupational safety and health, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, Sandy, Utah, Davis County, Utah, West Jordan, Utah


This study sought to determine radiation exposure across the cranium of cardiologists and the protective ability of a nonlead, XPF (barium sulfate/bismuth oxide) layered cap (BLOXR, Salt Lake City, Utah) during fluoroscopically guided, invasive cardiovascular (CV) procedures.

Concepts: Medicine, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, Real Salt Lake, Wasatch Front, Salt Lake City International Airport


We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Concepts: Obesity, Mass, Body mass index, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, Wasatch Front


To determine whether 2012 to 2015 (times 1-3) ridership changes correlated with body mass index (BMI) changes after transit line completion in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Concepts: Body mass index, U.S. state, Grid plan, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, Wasatch Front


The United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recently published recommendations that support planned home birth for low-risk women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) remains wary of planned home birth, asserting that hospitals and birthing centers are the safest birth settings. Our objective was to examine opinions of obstetricians in Salt Lake City, Utah about home birth in the context of rising home birth rates and conflicting guidelines.

Concepts: Childbirth, United Kingdom, England, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, University of Utah


As part of two separate studies aimed to characterize ambient pollutant concentrations at schools in urban areas, we compare black carbon and particle count measurements at Adcock Elementary in Las Vegas, Nevada (April-June 2013), and Hunter High School in the West Valley City area of Greater Salt Lake City, Utah (February 2012). Both schools are in urban environments, but Adcock Elementary is next to the U.S. 95 freeway. Black Carbon (BC) concentrations were 13% higher at Adcock compared to Hunter, while particle count concentrations were 60% higher. When wind speeds were low-less than 2 m/sec-both BC and particle count concentrations were significantly higher at Adcock, while concentrations at Hunter did not have as strong a variation with wind speed. When wind speeds were less than 2 m/s, emissions from the adjacent freeway greatly affected concentrations at Adcock, regardless of wind direction. At both sites, BC and particle count concentrations peaked in the morning during commute hours. At Adcock, particle count also peaked during midday or early afternoon, when BC was low and conditions were conducive to new particle formation. While this midday peak occurred at Adcock on roughly 45% of the measured days, it occurred on only about 25% of the days at Hunter, since conditions for particle formation (higher solar radiation, lower wind speeds, lower relative humidity) were more conducive at Adcock. Thus, children attending these schools are likely to be exposed to pollution peaks during school drop-off in the morning, when BC and particle count concentrations peak, and often again during lunchtime recess when particle count peaks again.

Concepts: City, Wind, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, West Valley City, Utah, Granite School District, Salt Lake City metropolitan area


Posterior cranial vault distraction (PCVD) has become an important modality in the management of complex craniosynostosis to increase intracranial volume and improve the cranial vault appearance. This technique can safely be performed as early as 3 months of age for the initial management of patients with complex craniosynostosis. A retrospective review was performed of all the patients with syndromic, multiple-suture synostosis treated with PCVD at Primary Children’s Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah, between 2012 and 2014. During this time period, a total of nine children with an average corrected age of 21.4 weeks were treated. Demographics, intraoperative data, and postoperative distraction data were collected. Occipital frontal head circumferences (OFCs) were recorded pre- and postdistraction, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up examinations. All patients had a substantial increase in head circumference with subjective improvement of the posterior calvarium shape. The average increase in OFC from preoperative to postdistraction was 4.9 cm. Only two significant postoperative complications were encountered, one hardware infection and one cerebrospinal fluid leak. PCVD is an effective procedure in the management of complex craniosynostosis and can be safely initiated very early in life.

Concepts: Hospital, Skull, Periodization, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah


To evaluate the individual effectiveness of needling therapy using the Dermapen (Dermapen, Salt Lake City, Utah) and topical therapy with silicone gel (Kelo-cote, Sinclair Pharma, London, England), and their combined effectiveness for the treatment of linear surgical scars, hypertrophic scars, and keloids.

Concepts: Scar, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, Real Salt Lake, Wasatch Front, Salt Lake City International Airport


The Venous Window Needle Guide (VWING; Vital Access Corp, Salt Lake City, Utah) is a surgically implanted titanium device designed to facilitate cannulation of uncannulatable dialysis access arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) because of excessive depth, aneurysm formation, or tortuosity but that exhibit sufficient flow volume to support hemodialysis. We report the 18-month fistula patency, functionality, and complications of the use of the VWING device.

Concepts: Hemodialysis, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, Wasatch Front


This study compared the patency of a split-tip self-centering catheter with a predesigned curve (CentrosFLO; Merit, Salt Lake City, Utah) and a standard split-tip catheter with straight distal limbs (Medcomp, Harleysville, Pennsylvania) catheter in patients requiring exchange of a dysfunctional tunneled dialysis catheter (TDC).

Concepts: Hemodialysis, City, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Wasatch Front