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Concept: Salt Lake City


Air samples were collected in 12 randomly selected commercial nail salons in Salt Lake County, Utah. Measurements of salon physical/chemical parameters (room volume, CO(2) levels) were obtained. Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were collected using summa air canisters and sorbent media tubes for an 8-h period. Multivariate analyses were used to identify relationships between salon physical/chemical characteristics and the VOCs found in the air samples. The ACGIH(®) additive mixing formula was also applied to determine if there were potential overexposures to the combined airborne concentrations of chemicals monitored. Methyl methacrylate was detected in 58% of the establishments despite having been banned for use in nail products by the state of Utah. Formaldehyde was found above the NIOSH REL(®) (0.016 ppm) in 58% of the establishments. Given the assortment of VOCs to which nail salon workers are potentially exposed, a combination of engineering as well as personal protective equipment is recommended.

Concepts: West Jordan, Utah, Davis County, Utah, Occupational safety and health, Sandy, Utah, Salt Lake County, Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, Volatile organic compound


This study sought to determine radiation exposure across the cranium of cardiologists and the protective ability of a nonlead, XPF (barium sulfate/bismuth oxide) layered cap (BLOXR, Salt Lake City, Utah) during fluoroscopically guided, invasive cardiovascular (CV) procedures.

Concepts: Salt Lake City International Airport, Real Salt Lake, Wasatch Front, Medicine, Salt Lake County, Utah, Utah, Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City


The oxygen (18O/16O) isotope analysis of hair is commonly applied to reconstruct an individual’s residence history. However, region-of-origin as determined from oxygen isotope values (δ18O) alone is often spatially indistinct. Adding additional geochemical recorders can refine region-of-origin estimates. In this capacity, strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope analysis has attracted increased interest. While87Sr/86Sr reflects the influences of local geology,87Sr/86Sr of hair includes both external environmental signals as well as the internal dietary indicators. To better understand the impact of these contributions to the spatial signal encoded within87Sr/86Sr of hair, human hair was collected from three locations within Salt Lake City, Utah along with the donor’s sex. The87Sr/86Sr and δ18O of hair and local tap water were measured. There were no significant relationships between sex and either δ18O or87Sr/86Sr of hair, nor between collection location and the δ18O of hair. However, we found significant associations between collection location and87Sr/86Sr of hair. These findings suggest that interactions with local water may be an important source of Sr to human hair and that the87Sr/86Sr of hair may have the capacity to record differences in87Sr/86Sr of tap waters on small spatial scales.

Concepts: Great Salt Lake, Pacific Coast League, Water supply, Water quality, Protein, Salt Lake City, Utah, Water


Measurements of chemical and physical parameters made before and after sealing of culverts in the railroad causeway spanning Great Salt Lake in late 2013 documented dramatic alterations in the system in response to the elimination of flow between the Great Salt Lake’s north and south arms. The flow of denser, more saline water through the culverts from the north arm (Gunnison Bay) to the south arm (Gilbert Bay) previously drove the perennial stratification of the south arm and the existence of oxic shallow brine and anoxic deep brine layers. Closure of the causeway culverts occurred concurrently with a multiyear drought that resulted in a decrease in the lake elevation and a concomitant increase in top-down erosion of the upper surface of the deep brine layer by wind-forced mixing. The combination of these events resulted in replacement of the formerly stratified water column in the south arm with one that is vertically homogeneous and oxic. Total mercury concentrations in the deep waters of the south arm decreased by approximately 81%, and methylmercury concentrations in deep waters decreased by roughly 86%, due to destratification. Methylmercury concentrations decreased by 77% in underlying surficial sediment whereas there no change was observed in total mercury. The dramatic mercury loss from deep waters and methylmercury loss from underlying sediment in response to causeway sealing provides new understanding of the potential role of the deep brine layer in the accumulation and persistence of methylmercury in the Great Salt Lake. Additional mercury measurements in biota appear to contradict the previously implied connection between elevated methylmercury concentrations in the deep brine layer and elevated mercury in avian species reported prior to causeway sealing.

Concepts: Jordan River, Utah Lake, Salt Lake City, Lake, Utah, Water, Great Salt Lake


We report botulism poisoning at a state prison after ingestion of homemade wine (pruno).

Concepts: Botulism, Salt Lake City


This retrospective study examined the longitudinal hospital outcomes (costs adjusted for inflation, hospital days, and admissions) associated with the treatment of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients between one and 26 years of age with newly diagnosed ALL, who were treated at Primary Children’s Hospital (PCH) in Salt Lake City, Utah were included. Treatment and hospitalization data were retrieved from system-wide cancer registry and enterprise data warehouse. PCH is a member of the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) and patients were treated on, or according to, active COG protocols. Treatment-related hospital costs of ALL were examined by computing the average annual growth rates (AAGR). Longitudinal regressions identified patient characteristics associated with costs. A total of 505 patients (46.9% female) were included. The majority of patients had B-cell lineage ALL, 6.7% had T-ALL, and the median age at diagnosis was 4 years. Per-patient, first-year ALL hospitalization costs at PCH rose from $24,197 in 1998 to $37,924 in 2012. The AAGRs were 6.1, 13.0, and 7.6% for total, pharmacy, and room and care costs, respectively. Average days (AAGR = 5.2%) and admissions (AAGR = 3.8%) also demonstrated an increasing trend. High-risk patients had 47% higher costs per 6-month period in the first 5 years from diagnosis than standard-risk patients (P < 0.001). Similarly, relapsed ALL and stem cell transplantations were associated with significantly higher costs than nonrelapsed and no transplantations, respectively (P < 0.001). Increasing treatment-related costs of ALL demonstrate an area for further investigation. Value-based interventions such as identifying low-risk fever and neutropenia patients and managing them in outpatient settings should be evaluated for reducing the hospital burden of ALL.

Concepts: Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, Leukemia, Children's hospital, Patient, Physician, Hospital, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia


We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Concepts: Wasatch Front, Obesity, Salt Lake County, Utah, Utah, Body mass index, Great Salt Lake, Mass, Salt Lake City


Editor’s note: On July 26, 2017, Alex Wubbels, the charge nurse on the burn unit at the University of Utah Hospital in Salt Lake City, was arrested for refusing to allow a police officer to draw blood from an unconscious patient in her care. Her arrest, during which she was forcefully placed in handcuffs and dragged out of the hospital, was documented on body camera video and drew national attention. We asked our ethical and legal contributing editors to provide some insight on the issues of this case.

Concepts: UTA TRAX, Fort Douglas, Utah, Police, Pioneer Theatre Company, Great Salt Lake, University of Utah, Utah, Salt Lake City


FilmArray GI Panel (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT) is a multiplex, on-demand, sample-to-answer, real-time PCR assay for the syndromic diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis that has become widely adopted and, in some instances, replaced conventional stool culture and parasite exams. Conventional testing has historically been restricted among hospitalized patients due to low diagnostic yield, but it is not known whether use of the FilmArray GI Panel should be circumscribed. Cary-Blair stool samples submitted for FilmArray GI Panel in adult patients admitted to an academic hospital from August 2015 to January 2017 were included in this study. Of 481 tests performed >72 hours after admission, 29 (6.0%) were positive, all for a single target, excluding Clostridium difficile When follow-up tests beyond the first positive per hospitalization were excluded, 20 (4.8%) of 414 tests were positive. There was no difference in yield by immune status. Most targets detected were viral (79% of all positives [n=23], 70% in unique patients [n=14]). All four cases positive for a bacterial target could not be confirmed and presentation was atypical, suggesting possible false positives. After removing potential false positives and chronic viral shedders, the yield was 3.0% (12/406). Repeat testing performed >72 hours after admission and following a negative result within the first 72 hours was done in 19 patients and 100% (22/22) remained negative. The FilmArray GI Panel has low yield in adult patients hospitalized for >72 hours, similar to conventional stool microbiology tests, and it is reasonable to restrict its use in this population.

Concepts: Salt Lake City, Utah, Diagnosis, Gastroenteritis, Polymerase chain reaction, Diarrhea, Hospital, Clostridium difficile


This study provides insight from the use of weather radar observations to understand the characteristics of the eared grebe migration near the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and provides unique information on weather conditions connected to these migration events. Doppler weather radar measurements from the Salt Lake City, Utah WSR-88D radar site (KMTX), along with meteorological surface and rawinsonde data, were used to identify and examine 281 eared grebe migration events across 15 winters from 1997/1998 through 2011/2012. An average of about 19 migration events occurred each winter with considerable interannual variability, as well as large variance in the spatial area and number of birds departing the GSL during each event. The migration events typically occurred during clear sky conditions in the presence of surface high pressure and colder than average surface temperatures. Migration events began 55 min after sunset, on average across the winter seasons, and in one case we demonstrate that an extended, nonstop flight was initiated of the departing eared grebes to northern Mexico. Eared grebes leaving the GSL largely flew above the freezing level with a mean northerly tailwind at flight altitude of 3.1 m s(-1) and a westerly, cross-flight wind of 5.0 m s(-1) while having an average flight speed at cruising altitude of 16.9 m s(-1), or 61 km h(-1). In addition to determining the variability of meteorological conditions during migration events across the 15 winters, atmospheric conditions during the largest migration event observed are presented and discussed.

Concepts: Wasatch Front, Ogden, Utah, Weather forecasting, Weather radar, Radar, Utah, Salt Lake City, Great Salt Lake