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Concept: Rupture of membranes


Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) complicated by microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) leading to histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) significantly impacts perinatal morbidity. Unfortunately, no well-established tool for identifying PPROM patients threatened by these disorders is available.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Medical terms, Obstetrics, Amniotic fluid, Premature rupture of membranes, Rupture of membranes, Chorioamnionitis


Bacterial colonization of the fetal membranes and its role in pathogenesis of membrane rupture is poorly understood. Prior retrospective work revealed chorion layer thinning in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) subjects. Our objective was to prospectively examine fetal membrane chorion thinning and to correlate to bacterial presence in PPROM, preterm, and term subjects.

Concepts: Immune system, Cell membrane, Obstetrics, Embryology, Premature rupture of membranes, Membrane, Rupture of membranes, Amnion


Abstract Objective: To determine whether artificial rupture of membranes (AROM) during active phase of labor augments uterine contractility using Electrical Uterine Myography (EUM). Study Design: A prospective study of 31 women with term singleton pregnancy during active phase of labor. Using a noninvasive EUM technique, electrical uterine activity was recorded in the 30 minutes preceding AROM and in the immediate 30 minutes thereafter. Augmentation was defined as >5% increase in EUM index between the basal and post AROM states, representing the mean EUM increase of the entire cohort. Low basal uterine contraction was defines as EUM index of less than the entire cohort median result prior AROM (3.5 micro-Watt-Second (mWS)). Results: Mean dilatation in which AROM was preformed was 5.5±1.8 cm. There was a significant increase in mean EUM measurement in the post AROM compared to the basal state (3.59±0.39 vs. 3.42±0.47 mWS, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, low BMI and low basal uterine contractions were the only significant predictors for augmentation following AROM (OR 0.69, 95% C.I 0.45-0.97, P=0.009 and OR 16.03, 95% CI 1.90-134.69, P=0.003, respectively). Conclusion: Myometrial electrical activity was significantly enhanced following AROM. Augmentation was mostly pronounced in patients with lower BMI and initial lower basal uterine contraction.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Uterus, Obstetrics, Arithmetic mean, Contraction, Rupture of membranes


Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is a life-threatening obstetric complication in rare cases associated with previously performed salpingectomy.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Uterus, Obstetrics, Ectopic pregnancy, Rupture of membranes


Acute rupture of the Achilles tendon is common and seen most frequently in people who participate in recreational athletics into their thirties and forties. Although goals of treatment have not changed in the past 15 years, recent studies of nonsurgical management, specifically functional bracing with early range of motion, demonstrate rerupture rates similar to those of tendon repair and result in fewer wound and soft-tissue complications. Satisfactory outcomes may be obtained with nonsurgical or surgical treatment. Newer surgical techniques, including limited open and percutaneous repair, show rerupture rates similar to those of open repair but lower overall complication rates. Early research demonstrates no improvement in functional outcomes or tendon properties with the use of platelet-rich plasma, but promising results with the use of bone marrow-derived stem cells have been seen in animal models. Further investigation is necessary to warrant routine use of biologic adjuncts in the management of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

Concepts: Demonstration, Tendon, Achilles tendon, Tendinosis, Rupture of membranes, Achilles tendon rupture


An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture has major consequences at midterm follow-up, with an increasing chance of developing an old knee in a young patient. The long-term (≥20 years) effects of the operative and nonoperative treatment of ACL ruptures are still unclear.

Concepts: Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, Ligament, Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Cruciate ligament, Ligaments, Lateral meniscus, Rupture of membranes


To characterize the vaginal microbiota of women following preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), and determine if microbiome composition predicts latency duration and perinatal outcomes.

Concepts: Cohort study, Childbirth, Cohort, Obstetrics, Premature rupture of membranes, Rupture of membranes


Environmentally cued hatching allows embryos to escape dangers and exploit new opportunities. Such adaptive responses require a flexibly regulated hatching mechanism sufficiently fast to meet relevant challenges. Anurans show widespread, diverse cued hatching responses, but their described hatching mechanisms are slow, and regulation of timing is unknown. Arboreal embryos of red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas, escape from snake attacks and other threats by very rapid premature hatching. We used videography, manipulation of hatching embryos and electron microscopy to investigate their hatching mechanism. High-speed video revealed three stages of the hatching process: pre-rupture shaking and gaping, vitelline membrane rupture near the snout, and muscular thrashing to exit through the hole. Hatching took 6.5-49 s. We hypothesized membrane rupture to be enzymatic, with hatching enzyme released from the snout during shaking. To test this, we displaced hatching embryos to move their snout from its location during shaking. The membrane ruptured at the original snout position and embryos became trapped in collapsed capsules; they either moved repeatedly to relocate the hole or shook again and made a second hole to exit. Electron microscopy revealed that hatching glands are densely concentrated on the snout and absent elsewhere. They are full of vesicles in embryos and release most of their contents rapidly at hatching. Agalychnis callidryas' hatching mechanism contrasts with the slow process described in anurans to date and exemplifies one way in which embryos can achieve rapid, flexibly timed hatching to escape from acute threats. Other amphibians with cued hatching may also have novel hatching mechanisms.

Concepts: Enzyme, Obstetrics, Regulation, American films, Amphibian, Rupture of membranes, Agalychnis callidryas, Agalychnis


Hemorrhagic stroke and brain microbleeds are caused by cerebrovascular ruptures. Fast repair of such ruptures is the most promising therapeutic approach. Due to a lack of high-resolution in vivo real-time studies, the dynamic cellular events involved in cerebrovascular repair remain unknown. Here, we have developed a cerebrovascular rupture system in zebrafish by using multi-photon laser, which generates a lesion with two endothelial ends. In vivo time-lapse imaging showed that a macrophage arrived at the lesion and extended filopodia or lamellipodia to physically adhere to both endothelial ends. This macrophage generated mechanical traction forces to pull the endothelial ends and facilitate their ligation, thus mediating the repair of the rupture. Both depolymerization of microfilaments and inhibition of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase or Rac1 activity disrupted macrophage-endothelial adhesion and impaired cerebrovascular repair. Our study reveals a hitherto unexpected role for macrophages in mediating repair of cerebrovascular ruptures through direct physical adhesion and mechanical traction.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Cell biology, Macrophage, Stroke, Developed country, Force, Mediation, Rupture of membranes


Premature Pre-labor Rupture of Fetal Membranes (PPROM) accounts for 30% of all premature births and is associated with detrimental long-term infant outcomes. Premature cervical remodeling, facilitated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), may trigger rupture at the zone of the fetal membranes overlying the cervix. The similarities and differences underlying cervical remodeling in PPROM and spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes (PTL) are unexplored.

Concepts: Childbirth, Obstetrics, Cervix, Matrix metalloproteinase, Vagina, Preterm birth, Premature rupture of membranes, Rupture of membranes