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Concept: Rum


In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia.

Concepts: Ethanol, Sugar, Biofuel, Sucrose, Ethanol fuel, Sugarcane, Bagasse, Rum


Studies have shown that false memories can be implanted via innocuous suggestions, and that these memories can play a role in shaping people’s subsequent attitudes and preferences. The current study explored whether participants (N=147) who received a false suggestion that they had become ill drinking a particular type of alcohol would increase their confidence that the event had occurred, and whether their new-found belief would subsequently affect their alcohol preferences. Results indicated that participants who received a suggestion that they had gotten sick drinking rum or vodka before the age of 16 reported increased confidence that the suggested experience had occurred. Moreover, participants who received a false alcohol suggestion also showed a strong trend to report diminished preference for the specified type of alcohol after the false suggestion. Implantation of a false memory related to one’s past drinking experiences may influence current drink preferences and could be an important avenue for further exploration in the development of alcohol interventions.

Concepts: Memory, Amnesia, Suggestion, Alcoholic beverage, Vodka, Drinking culture, Distilled beverage, Rum


In the US, underage drinkers often consume supersized alcopop - a high-alcohol-content, ready-to-drink flavored alcoholic beverage that is currently regulated as beer. However, calculations in this paper illustrate how the high alcohol by volume and low price of supersized alcopops suggest that they rely on a larger proportion of additives for their alcohol content than permitted to meet the legal definition for beer. From a public safety perspective, it is urgently important that the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau assess the formulation of supersized alcopops - specifically, the percent of alcohol in the finished product that is derived from additives. Appropriate reclassification of supersized alcopops as distilled spirits would reduce youth access by resulting in increased price and reduced availability at the retail locations where youth most often obtain alcohol.

Concepts: Alcohol, Ethanol, Alcoholic beverage, Beer, Alcohol by volume, Cider, Alcopop, Rum


A large set of volatiles (a metabolome) was isolated by SAFE distillation from twenty-five high priced rums prepared from sugar cane juice (SCJ) and twenty-six high priced rums manufactured from sugar cane molasses (SCM). The volatile fractions were first analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS) and the ‘comprehensive template matching fingerprinting’ was used to extract the entire features present in the respective set of volatile compounds. After raw data pre-treatment, chemometrics was used to locate marker compounds. Following, a sparse-partial-least-squares discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA) and a partial-least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to a training data set for creating a model. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation and tested over an independent data set to evaluate its predictive power. The characteristic fingerprint resulted in a 100% correct classification of sugar cane juice rums, thus achieving the first aim of locating markers for these higher quality rums. Then, past-processing identification within the discriminant features was done to characterize 12 significant marker compounds as 1-decanol, γ-dodecalactone, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl nonanoate, 3-furancarboxaldehyde, 1-hexanol, β-ionone, 2- and 3-methylbutanol, methyl decanoate, 3-octanol, and 2-undecanone. Quantitation of eight selected markers by stable isotope dilution assays confirmed higher concentrations in SCJ compared to SCM and served as the final proof to differentiate both types of spirits.

Concepts: DNA, Mass spectrometry, Ethanol, Molasses, Time-of-flight, Volatile, Sugarcane, Rum


Sugarcane distillery waste water (SDW) or vinasse is the residual liquid waste generated during sugarcane molasses fermentation and alcohol distillation. Worldwide, this effluent is responsible for serious environmental issues. In Reunion Island, between 100 and 200 thousand tons of SDW are produced each year by the three local distilleries. In this study, the potential of Aspergillus niger to reduce the pollution load of SDW and to produce interesting metabolites has been investigated.

Concepts: Oxygen, Water, Ethanol, Petroleum, Vodka, Chemical engineering, Distillation, Rum


The present work highlights the effect of ultrasound on enzymatic synthesis of isobutyl propionate, a rum flavor by esterification of isobutanol and propionic acid in non-aqueous, solvent free system (SFS) using Fermase CALB™10000. The optimization study for different variables in presence of ultrasound showed a maximum conversion of 95.14% at 60°C temperature, 4% w/w enzyme dose, 1:3 acid:alcohol ratio, 40W power, 25kHz frequency, 50% duty cycle and 150rpm speed in 3h as compared to 10h of conventional method. The optimal enzyme loading was reduced to 4% w/w using ultrasound irradiation compared to 5% w/w of conventional. The efficiency of enzyme improved notably and can be reused up to seven cycles preserving its former activity. The application of ultrasound greatly enhanced esterification reactions by maintaining enzyme stability and improving the production yield. Moreover, owing towards a green approach, the synthesis is carried out in SFS for development of lucrative flavor ester. Bisubstrate kinetic models like random bi-bi, ping pong bi-bi and ordered bi-bi were applied to the experimental data using non-linear regression analysis. The experimental data and kinetic study revealed that reaction obeyed Ping-Pong bi-bi model with kinetic parameters, Vmax=50.0M/min/gcatalyst, KA=4.87×10-2M, KB=9.06×10-4M, KiA=9.8×10-1M, KiB=1.05×10-3M &SSE=2.74×10-4 for lipase catalysed synthesis of isobutyl propionate under ultrasound with inhibition by both acid and alcohol.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Alcohol, Enzyme, Chemical reaction, Acetic acid, Carboxylic acid, Propionic acid, Rum


Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are group of biodegradable polymers and attractive substitutes over conventional plastics to avoid the pollution problems. The yeast strain isolated from sugarcane juice, identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus VIT-NN01, was used for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Response surface methodology (RSM), three level -six variables Box-Behnken design (BBD), was employed to optimize the factors such as pH 8.0, temperature 37°C, sugarcane molasses (35g/L) supplemented with co-substrate palm oil (0.5%),corn steep liquor (2%) after a period of 96h of incubation for the maximum yield (19.50±0.3g/L) of PHA. It was well in close agreement with the predicted value obtained by RSM model yield (19.55±0.1g/L).Characterization of the extracted polymer was done using FTIR, GC-MS, XRD, TGA and AFM analysis. NMR spectroscopic analysis revealed that the biopolymer was poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), co-polymer of PHA. This is the first report on optimization of PHA production using yeast strain isolated from natural sources.

Concepts: Scientific method, Ethanol, Polymer, Copolymer, Polymer chemistry, Alcoholic beverage, Polymers, Rum


This study identified and quantitated perceived sensory differences between 7 premium rums and 2 mixing rums using a hybrid of the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Spectrum methods. In addition, the results of this study validated the previously developed rum flavor wheel created from web-based materials. Results showed that the use of the rum flavor wheel aided in sensory term generation, as 17 additional terms were generated after the wheel was provided to panelists. Thirty-eight sensory terms encompassing aroma, aroma-by-mouth, mouthfeel, taste and aftertaste modalities, were generated and evaluated by the panel. Of the finalized terms, only 5 did not exist previously on the rum flavor wheel. Twenty attributes were found to be significantly different among rums. The majority of rums showed similar aroma profiles with the exception of 2 rums, which were characterized by higher perceived intensities of brown sugar, caramel, vanilla, and chocolate aroma, caramel, maple, and vanilla aroma-by-mouth and caramel aftertaste.

Concepts: Difference, Sense, Olfaction, Taste, Flavor, Sugar, Vanilla, Rum


Purple sweet potato was fermented into alcoholic beverage. By using LC-MS analysis, 12 types of anthocyanins were found in the purple sweet potato alcoholic beverage (PSPFAB); these were based on cyanidin and peonidin as aglycones. The anthocyanins in young PSPFAB mainly consisted of acylates. The acylated anthocyanins, however, degraded gradually with aging. Cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside and peonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside were found to be major anthocyanins in the PSPFAB after two years of aging. Moreover, 52 kinds of volatile components were detected in PSPFAB by GC-MS analysis. Alcohol and ester substances constituted a major proportion of these volatile components of PSPFAB. After two years of aging, levels of high-alcohols such as 1-pentanol remarkably decreased to below the detection limit, while the level of total esters increased significantly. Such variation of aromas enriched and improved the flavor of PSPFAB.

Concepts: Alcohol, Alcoholism, Ester, Wine, Alcoholic beverage, Fermentation, Sweet potato, Rum


About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural residents in Central China. Interviews were conducted with 3298 individuals in 21 towns/villages in 10 counties in the Hubei, Anhui, and Hebei provinces in the People’s Republic of China. Unrecorded bai jiu drinkers chose it because of its taste and its low price. It was consumed mostly by older men, mostly at home with family, more regularly and at higher alcohol by volume (ABV) compared to recorded alcohol. Recorded bai jiu drinkers were more likely to drink away from their homes, consumed more bai jiu at memorable drinking occasions, and reported feeling sick after drinking more often than unrecorded bai jiu drinkers. This comparison of patterns of use of unrecorded bai jiu and recorded bai jiu does not suggest that unrecorded bai jiu is more problematic for drinkers.

Concepts: Alcohol, Ethanol, Alcoholic beverage, Beer, Vodka, Cider, Brandy, Rum