Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Ruler


As the hardware of FLIM technique becomes mature, the most important criterion for FLIM application is the correct interpretation of its data. In this research, first of all, a more orthogonal phasor approach, called as Modified Phasor Approach (MPA), is put forward. It is a way to calculate the lifetime of the complex fluorescent process, and a rule to measure how much the fluorescence process deviates from single exponential decay. Secondly, MPA is used to analysis the time-resolved fluorescence processes of the transfected CHO-K1 Cell lines expressing adenosine receptor A1R tagged by CYP and YFP, measured in the channel of the acceptor. The image of the fluorescence lifetime and the multiplication of the fluorescence lifetime and deviation from single exponential decay reveal the details of the Homo-FRET. In one word, MPA provides the physical meaning in its whole modified phasor space, and broadens the way for the application of the fluorescence lifetime imaging.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Measurement, Radioactive decay, Computer program, Real number, Exponential function, English Channel, Ruler


Velocities and accelerations are measured and visualized in silicon microchannels using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). Both pulsatile and stationary flows are generated in channels with different geometry. Distinct differences between flow regimes and geometries are shown. Flow separation occurred at Re = 84 for the channel with an expanded bifurcation shown by streamlines from long exposed images. Moving least squares are used to find the ensemble-averaged positions of the measured velocities from tracking. This is needed to find the local and convective accelerations.

Concepts: Fluid dynamics, General relativity, Measurement, Particle image velocimetry, Dimensional analysis, Ruler, Particle tracking velocimetry, Velocimetry


Current wound assessment practices are lacking on several measures. For example, the most common method for measuring wound size is using a ruler, which has been demonstrated to be crude and inaccurate. An increase in periwound temperature is a classic sign of infection but skin temperature is not always measured during wound assessments. To address this, we have developed a smartphone application that enables non-contact wound surface area and temperature measurements. Here we evaluate the inter-rater reliability and accuracy of this novel point-of-care wound assessment tool.

Concepts: Measurement, Psychometrics, Measuring instrument, Ruler


We compared a goniometer method in a non-weight-bearing position with a tape measure method in a weight-bearing position to determine which was more reliable for assessing dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) in children with cerebral palsy (CP).

Concepts: Psychometrics, Reliability, Cerebral palsy, Ruler, Dimensional instruments


Accurate limb volume measurement is key in the assessment of outcomes in lymphedema microsurgery. There are two commonly used methods as follows: manual circumferential measurement (tape) or Perometer measurement. There are no data on the intra- and interclass correlation of either method, making it difficult to establish a gold standard of limb volume measurement. We aim to assess the intra- and interclass correlation of each method to establish the most appropriate method for clinical practice and future research studies, aiming to compare the accuracy and reliability of tape measurement as assessed against Perometer measurement.

Concepts: Evaluation, Measurement, Metrology, Assessment, Psychometrics, Reliability, Accuracy and precision, Ruler


[Purpose] The purpose of this research was to verify the reliability and validity of measuring respiration movement using a wearable strain sensor (WSS) which has been developed newly for clinical objective assessment. [Subjects and Methods] The 21 healthy male students were advised to conduct a breathing movement using measuring tape (MT) and WSS respectively, which was the measured at four locations on chest and abdomen wall. The different degree of chest expansion from maximal end of expiration to maximal end of inspiration was confirmed at each location. The intra-rater ICC (1,1) with 95% confidence interval was used to assess the test-retest reliability, Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed to establish the validity. [Results] All ICC values for intra-rater reliability were from 0.94 to 0.98 at all locations, which means that there is a high correlation. All values for validity showed significantly positive, indicating that there is a correlation between the measuring tape and WSS at four locations. [Conclusion] Compared to the measuring tape, WSS has been proved to have high reliability and validity. The finding of this research indicated that WSS is reliable to use for objective measurement of respiratory movements on the chest and abdomen wall in clinical assessment.

Concepts: Statistics, Measurement, Assessment, Psychometrics, Reliability, Test-retest, Comparison of assessments, Ruler


This article presents a self-calibration procedure and the experimental results for the geometrical characterisation of a 2D laser system operating along a large working range (50 mm × 50 mm) with submicrometre uncertainty. Its purpose is to correct the geometric errors of the 2D laser system setup generated when positioning the two laser heads and the plane mirrors used as reflectors. The non-calibrated artefact used in this procedure is a commercial grid encoder that is also a measuring instrument. Therefore, the self-calibration procedure also allows the determination of the geometrical errors of the grid encoder, including its squareness error. The precision of the proposed algorithm is tested using virtual data. Actual measurements are subsequently registered, and the algorithm is applied. Once the laser system is characterised, the error of the grid encoder is calculated along the working range, resulting in an expanded submicrometre calibration uncertainty (k = 2) for the X and Y axes. The results of the grid encoder calibration are comparable to the errors provided by the calibration certificate for its main central axes. It is, therefore, possible to confirm the suitability of the self-calibration methodology proposed in this article.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Measurement, Metrology, Error, Test method, Uncertainty, The Grid, Ruler


We compared the efficacy of three slings in the long-term treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI): tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O), and an in-house two-layered polypropylene mesh with a submicronic polytetrafluoroethylene (Composix™). Our primary endpoint was the objective measurement of continence (24-hour pad test). Secondarily, we measured the satisfaction and complication rates.

Concepts: Measurement, Metrology, Urinary incontinence, Psychometrics, Test method, Quantity, Ruler


The measure of intraperitoneal pressure in peritoneal dialysis is easy and provides clear therapeutic benefits. However it is measured only rarely in adult peritoneal dialysis units. This review aims to disseminate the usefulness of measuring intraperitoneal pressure. This measurement is performed in supine before initiating the drain of a manual exchange with “Y” system, by raising the drain bag and measuring from the mid-axillary line the height of the liquid column that rises from the patient. With typical values of 10-16 cmH2O, intraperitoneal pressure should never exceed 18 cmH2O. With basal values that depend on body mass index, it increases 1-3 cmH2O/L of intraperitoneal volume, and varies with posture and physical activity. Its increase causes discomfort, sleep and breathing disturbances, and has been linked to the occurrence of leaks, hernias, hydrothorax, gastro-esophageal reflux and enteric peritonitis. Less known and valued is its ability to decrease the effectiveness of dialysis significantly counteracting ultrafiltration and decreasing solute clearance to a smaller degree. Because of its easy measurement and potential utility, should be monitored in case of ultrafiltration failure to rule out its eventual contribution in some patients. Although not yet mentioned in the clinical practice guidelines for PD, its clear benefits justify its inclusion among the periodic measurements to consider for prescribing and monitoring peritoneal dialysis.

Concepts: Dialysis, Measurement, Metrology, Test method, Units of measurement, Systems of measurement, Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology, Ruler


We aimed to examine prospectively the association between a range of retinal vascular geometric variables measured from retinal photographs and the 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus, Geometry, Retina, The Association, Diabetic retinopathy, Combinatorics, Projective geometry, Ruler