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Concept: Rosemary


Oxidative damage is one of the hallmarks of the aging process. The current study evaluated effects of two proprietary antioxidant-based ingredients, rosemary extract and spearmint extract containing carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, respectively, on learning and memory in the SAMP8 mouse model of accelerated aging.The two rosemary extracts contained carnosic acid (60% or 10% carnosic acid) and one spearmint extract contained 5% rosmarinic acid. Three doses of actives in each extract were tested: 32, 16, 1.6 or 0mg/kg. After 90days of treatment mice were tested in T-maze foot shock avoidance, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract containing 60% carnosic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract with 10% carnosic acid improved retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and lever press. Spearmint with 5% rosmarinic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and object recognition. 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) was reduced in the brain cortex after treatment with all three extracts (P<0.001) compared to the vehicle treated SAMP8. Protein carbonyls were reduced in the hippocampus after administration of rosemary with 10% carnosic acid (P<0.05) and spearmint containing 5% rosmarinic acid (P<0.001). The current results indicate that the extracts from spearmint and rosemary have beneficial effects on learning and memory and brain tissue markers of oxidation that occur with age in SAMP8 mice.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Brain, Redox, Human brain, Cerebral cortex, Hippocampus, Carbonyl, Rosemary


The use of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves and their constituents as a source of dietary antioxidants and flavoring agents is continuously growing. Carnosol and carnosic acid, two major components of rosemary extracts, have shown activity for cancer prevention and therapy.

Concepts: Lamiaceae, Medicinal plants, Rosemary, Rosmarinus


The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of fractions from Rosmarinus officinalis L.: ethyl acetate 1 and 2 (AcOEt1 and 2), hexane (HEX), ethanolic (ET), and essential oil-free (EOF) fractions, as well as essential oil, the isolated compounds carnosol and betulinic acid in the tail suspension test, a predictive test of antidepressant activity. Swiss mice were acutely administered by oral route (p.o.) with fractions, essential oil or isolated compounds, 60 min before the tail suspension test or open-field test. All of them produced a significant antidepressant-like effect: AcOEt1, ET, EOF fractions and essential oil (0.1-100mg/kg, p.o); HEX (0.1-10mg/kg, p.o) and AcOEt2 fraction (0.1-1mg/kg, p.o), carnosol (0.01-0.1mg/kg, p.o.) isolated from the HEX fraction and betulinic acid (10mg/kg, p.o.), isolated from the AcOEt1 and AcOEt2 fractions. No psychostimulant effect was shown in the open-field test, indicating that the effects in the tail suspension test are specific. This study suggests that carnosol and betulinic acid could be responsible for the anti-immobility effect of extracts from R. officinalis.

Concepts: Effect, Ethanol, Acetic acid, Fraction, Essential oil, Sexagesimal, Betulinic acid, Rosemary


The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-α release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, PH, Lamiaceae, Medicinal plants, Tandem mass spectrometry, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, Betulinic acid, Rosemary


The pathology of a gastric ulcer is complex and multifactorial. Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and its development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (eeRo); this plant, more commonly known as rosemary, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its numerous pharmacological properties and their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we tested the preventive effects of eeRo against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol in male Wistar rats. In addition, we aimed to clarify the mechanism involved in the preventive action of the eeRo in gastric ulcers. Based on the analysis of markers of oxidative damage and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, the measurement of nitrite and nitrate levels and the assessment of the inflammatory response, the eeRo exhibited significant antioxidant, vasodilator and antiinflammatory properties.

Concepts: Inflammation, Stomach, Anti-inflammatory, Helicobacter pylori, Peptic ulcer, Lamiaceae, Nitrate, Rosemary


The herb rosemary has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We have previously shown that carnosic acid (CA), present in rosemary extract, crosses the blood-brain barrier to exert neuroprotective effects by upregulating endogenous antioxidant enzymes via the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. Here we investigated the antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of CA in retinal cell lines exposed to oxidative stress and in a rat model of light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD).

Concepts: Protein, Adenosine triphosphate, Enzyme, Antioxidant, Oxidative stress, Oxidative phosphorylation, Herb, Rosemary


Our aim was to investigate the possible effects of regular drinking of Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf infusion on behavior and on AChE activity of mice. Rosemary tea (2% w/w) phytochemical profile was investigated through LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n). Adult male mice were randomly divided into two groups: “Rosemary-treated” that received orally the rosemary tea for 4 weeks and “control” that received drinking water. The effects of regular drinking of rosemary tea on behavioral parameters were assessed by passive avoidance, elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests. Moreover, its effects on cerebral and liver cholinesterase (ChE) isoforms activity were examined colorimetricaly. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of diterpenes, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives in rosemary tea; the major compounds were quantitatively determined. Its consumption rigorously affected anxiety/fear and depression-like behavior of mice, though memory/learning was unaffected. ChE isoforms activity was significantly decreased in brain and liver of “rosemary treated” mice. In order to explain the tissue ChE inhibition, principal component analysis, pharmacophore alignment and molecular docking were used to explore a possible relationship between main identified compounds of rosemary tea, i.e. rosmarinic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, caffeic acid and known AChE inhibitors. Results revealed potential common pharmacophores of the phenolic components with the inhibitors. Our findings suggest that rosemary tea administration exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects on mice and inhibits ChE activity; its main phytochemicals may function in a similar way as inhibitors.

Concepts: Enzyme inhibitor, Principal component analysis, Inhibitor, Lamiaceae, Acetylcholinesterase, Rosmarinic acid, Rosemary, Rosmarinus


This study was set to prepare a new active film by using a biodegradable bio-based source, i.e., corn starch. To achieve that, benzoic acid (BA) and chitosan (CS) were covalently bound and CS-BA nanogel was then obtained using self-assembly method. Subsequently, rosemary essential oil (REO) was encapsulated in CS-BA nanogel. Finally, REO in both free and encapsulated forms were incorporated in starch-carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) films and their physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties were studied. The films incorporating CS-BA nanogel had a higher water vapor permeability compared with the films containing REO. Moreover, film containing 0.2% CS-BA nanogel had the highest transparency and tensile strength. The REO and nanogel alone had inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and by encapsulation, the inhibitory effect of REO was increased. By encapsulating REO in nanogel, both immediately (REO) and gradual (Nanogel) antimicrobial effect against S. aureus in the starch-CMC suspensions were obtained.

Concepts: Staphylococcus aureus, Water, Starch, Cellulose, Tea tree oil, Essential oil, Oil, Rosemary


Rosmarinus officinalis is an aromatic plant used in folk medicine due to the therapeutic properties associated to its phenolic composition, rich in rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA). To better understand the bioactivity of these compounds, their absorption and metabolism were assessed in human Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, as small intestine and liver models, respectively, using RA and CA standards, as well as a rosemary infusion and ferulic acid (FA).

Concepts: Protein, Small intestine, Caffeic acid, Carboxylic acids, Phenols, Ferulic acid, Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, Rosemary


Mood disorder accounts for 13 % of global disease burden. And while therapeutic agents are available, usually orally administered, most have unwanted side effects, and thus making the inhalation of essential oils (EOs) an attractive alternative therapy. Rosmarinus officinalis EO (ROEO), Mediterranean ROEO reported to improve cognition, mood, and memory, the effect on stress of which has not yet been determined. Here, the anti-stress effect of ROEO on stress was evaluated in vivo and in vitro.

Concepts: Medicine, Stem cell, In vivo, In vitro, Essential oil, Oil, Oils, Rosemary