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Concept: Rose oil


BACKGROUND: Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens) L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. RESULTS: The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34 mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. CONCLUSION: Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Water, Essential oil, Oil, Oils, Rose, Rose oil, Pelargonium graveolens


To characterise the key aroma compounds of rose essential oils, five samples (Rosa damascena essential oil, Rosa centifolia essential oil, Rosa alba essential oil, Rosa rugosa cv. ‘Plena’ essential oil, Rosa xanthina Lindl essential oil) were analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Thirty-nine aroma compounds were selected as key aroma compounds by GC-MS and GC-O. The aroma of rose essential oils was described by 10 sensory attributes such as honey, sweet, fermented, spicy, fruity, woody, floral, herbal, green and fresh. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) result showed the relationship between key aroma compound and characteristic aromas of rose essential oils. This paper provided a reference for the flavourists.

Concepts: Least squares, Essential oil, Aroma compound, Rose, Rose oil, Roses, Rosa damascena, Rosa centifolia


The scent of roses (Rosa x hybrida) is composed of hundreds of volatile molecules. Monoterpenes represent up to 70% percent of the scent content in some cultivars, such as the Papa Meilland rose. Monoterpene biosynthesis in plants relies on plastid-localized terpene synthases. Combining transcriptomic and genetic approaches, we show that the Nudix hydrolase RhNUDX1, localized in the cytoplasm, is part of a pathway for the biosynthesis of free monoterpene alcohols that contribute to fragrance in roses. The RhNUDX1 protein shows geranyl diphosphate diphosphohydrolase activity in vitro and supports geraniol biosynthesis in planta.

Concepts: Perfume, Terpene, Terpenes and terpenoids, Rose, Rose oil, Geraniol


The anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the Reunion Geranium (Pelargonium roseum Willd) essential oil (EO) were evaluated in male Swiss albino mice by intraperitoneal administration of 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg bw using elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field test (OFT), and forced swimming test (FST). Moreover, we evaluated whether the 5-HT1Aand GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor systems are involved in the anxiolytic effects through the coadministration of WAY-100635 (a selective 5-HT1Areceptor antagonist) and flumazenil (an antagonist of benzodiazepine). GC-MS revealed the monoterpene alcohols citronellol (35.9%) and geraniol (18.5%) as the main components of the P. roseum EO. EO was effective in increasing the total number of entries and time spent in the open arms of EPM whereas number of rearing in OFT was significantly decreased in comparison with the control. In the FST, immobility time decreased in EO treated mice. Pretreatment with WAY-100635, but not Flumazenil, was able to reverse the effects of the EO in the EPM and FST, indicating that the EO activity occurs via the serotonergic but not GABAergic transmission. Overall, results of this work showed significant anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of P. roseum EO and confirmed the traditional uses of Pelargonium species as calming agents.

Concepts: Ethanol, Serotonin, Activity, Mouse, Benzodiazepine, Rose oil, Pelargonium graveolens, Pelargonium


To evaluate the effect of topical formulation of Rosa damascena Mill. (R. damascena) oil on migraine headache, applying syndrome diffrentiation model.

Concepts: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Paracetamol, Essential oil, Rose, Rose oil, Roses, Rosa damascena, Rosa centifolia


Rosa damascena Mill. is one of the most famous ornamental plants cultivated all over the world mostly for perfumery industries. Traditionally it has been used as an astringent, analgesic, cardiac and intestinal tonic.The paucity ofauthoritative monographs urged usto summarize its clinical effectiveness and safety with acomprehensive review of the literature. “PUBMED”, “SCOPUS”, “WEBOF SCIENCE” were searched up to April 30, 2017 with search terms:(“Rosa damascena” OR “Damask Rose”). All human studies with any mono-preparation were included. In vitro and animal studies from “PUBMED"were also reviewed and outlined. Of "1000” identified publications, twelveeligibleclinical trials were retrieved. Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, protective neuronal, cardiac, gastrointestinal and hepatic effectsin 30 in vitro and 21 animal studies were also shown. there are promising evidences for the effectiveness and safety of Rosa damascena Mill in pain relief, but confirmatory studies withstandardized products is suggested.

Concepts: Pain, Paracetamol, Rose, Rose oil, Roses, Rosa damascena, Rosa sericea, Rosa centifolia


There are no effective medications for delaying the progress of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. In this study, our results with C. elegans showed that rose essential oil (REO) significantly inhibited AD-like symptoms of worm paralysis and hypersensivity to exogenous 5-HT in a dose-dependent manner. Its main components of β-citronellol and geraniol acted less effectively than the oil itself. REO significantly suppressed Aβ deposits and reduced the Aβ oligomers to alleviate the toxicity induced by Aβ over-expression. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of REO on worm paralysis phenotype were abrogated only after skn-1 RNAi, but not daf-16 and hsf-1 RNAi. REO markedly activated the expression of gst-4 gene, which further supported SKN-1 signaling pathway was involved in the therapeutic effect of REO on AD C. elegans. Our results provided direct evidence on REO for treating AD on an organism level and relative theoretical foundation for reshaping medicinal products of REO in the future.

Concepts: Medicine, Neuron, Gene, RNA, Neurology, Neurodegenerative disorders, Essential oil, Rose oil


Aim Rosa damascene Mill. belongs to the family of Roseaceae and its essential oil is produced in large amounts in Iran. The wide application of rose oil has raised questions about potential adverse health effects. We have investigated cytotoxic activity and genotoxic effects of Rosa oil from Kashan, Iran. Methods The cytotoxic effect and IC50 of the essential oil on the cell lines was studied followed by MTT assay. In this assay mitochondrial oxidoreductase enzymes with reducing the tetrazolium dye MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reflect the number of viable cells. Genotoxic effect of the oil was evaluated by micronucleus assay by evaluating produced micronuclei due to cytogenetic damage in binucleated lymphocytes. Results The results showed that essential oil significantly had cytotoxic and genotoxic effects at doses over 10µg/mL (p<0.05). Also, essential oil of Rose showed lower IC50 in cancer cell line (A549) in comparison with the normal cell line (NIH3T3). Conclusion Cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of essential oil of Rose in Kashan, Iran, are safe at a dose of 10µg/mL. Also, a good cytotoxic effect was shown and could be introduced as an anticancer compound. Further studies are needed with regard to anti-cancer effects of Rose essential oil.

Concepts: Cell, Oncology, Cell biology, Cytotoxicity, MTT assay, Essential oil, Rose, Rose oil


In this work, the chemical composition, the antioxidant, and the antibacterial activities of two Moroccan essential oils less studied, extracted from Pelargonium asperum and Ormenis mixta, were investigated. According to the gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis, citronellol (25.07%), citronellyl ester (10.52%), geraniol (10.46%), and buthyl anthranilate (5.93%) were found to be the major components of P. asperum, while O. mixta was mainly composed of D-germacrene (11.46%), 1,8-cineole (10.28%), and cis-methyl isoeugenol (9.04%). Moreover, O. mixta essential oil exhibited an important antioxidant activity being significantly higher than that exhibited by P. asperum oil (P < 0.001). As regards the antimicrobial activity of both essential oils, the zones of growth inhibition and the minimum inhibitory concentration values showed that P. asperum essential oil was more active than that of O. mixta. Thereafter, the impact of the binary combination of essential oils on their antimicrobial effect was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus using the fractional inhibitory concentration index calculation. The results showed a promising synergistic antibacterial interaction between essential oils studied.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Staphylococcus aureus, Cinnamon, Tea tree oil, Essential oil, Oil, Oils, Rose oil


Hydrosols are hydrodistillation products used in food and cosmetic industries, perfumery, pharmacy and aromatherapy. The ability of preservatives to control previously reported bacterial proliferation and spoilage was evaluated. All tested preservatives were authorized for food and cosmetic application.

Concepts: Perfume, Orange, Essential oil, Rose, Lemon, Rose oil, Bitter orange, Rosa centifolia