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Concept: Room

187

The indoor biome is a novel habitat which recent studies have shown exhibit not only high microbial diversity, but also high arthropod diversity. Here, we analyze findings from a survey of 50 houses (southeastern USA) within the context of additional survey data concerning house and room features, along with resident behavior, to explore how arthropod diversity and community composition are influenced by physical aspects of rooms and their usage, as well as the lifestyles of human residents. We found that indoor arthropod diversity is strongly influenced by access to the outdoors and carpeted rooms hosted more types of arthropods than non-carpeted rooms. Arthropod communities were similar across most room types, but basements exhibited more unique community compositions. Resident behavior such as house tidiness, pesticide usage, and pet ownership showed no significant influence on arthropod community composition. Arthropod communities across all rooms in houses exhibit trophic structure-with both generalized predators and scavengers included in the most frequently found groups. These findings suggest that indoor arthropods serve as a connection to the outdoors, and that there is still much yet to be discovered about their impact on indoor health and the unique ecological dynamics within our homes.

Concepts: Arthropod, Ecology, Natural resource, Community, House, Rooms, Basement, Room

6

The spatial learning skills of high and low stress juvenile mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) were tested in a dichotomous choice apparatus. Groups of fish were formed based on background blood cortisol levels and required to learn the location of a food reward hidden in one of two compartments. Low stress fish characterised by low background levels of the stress hormone cortisol had higher activity levels and entered both rewarded and unrewarded rooms frequently. Within the first week of exposure, however, their preference for the rewarded room increased, indicative of learning. Fish that had high background levels of cortisol, in contrast, showed low levels of activity but when they chose between the two rooms they chose the rewarded room most often but showed less improvement over time. After 12 days in the apparatus, both low and high stress fish had similar ratios of rewarded vs unrewarded room entrances. Our results suggest that proactive coping styles may increase exposure to novel contexts and thus favour faster learning but at the cost of reduced initial accuracy.

Concepts: Psychology, Skill, Cortisol, Learning, Rooms, Argyrosomus, Room, Argyrosomus japonicus

3

The introduction of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers has had a positive influence on compliance of healthcare workers with the recommended guidelines for hand hygiene. However, establishing the best location for alcohol-based hand rub dispensers remains a problem, and no method is currently available to optimize the location of these devices. In this paper we describe a method to determine the optimal location for alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in patient rooms.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Patient, Optimization, Introduction, Room

1

In many orthopaedic operating rooms, anaesthesia providers routinely wear lead aprons for protection from radiation, but some studies have questioned whether this is needed. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that measured the amount of radiation that anaesthetists were exposed to in the orthopaedic operating room. Multiple studies have shown that at 1.5 m from the source of radiation, anaesthetists received no radiation, or amounts so small that a person would have to be present in an unreasonable number of operations to receive cumulative doses of any significance. Radiation doses at this distance were often at the limits of the sensitivity of the measuring dosimeter. We question the need to wear lead protection for anaesthesia providers who are routinely at 1.5 m or a greater distance from standard fluoroscopy units.

Concepts: Ionizing radiation, X-ray, Measurement, Metrology, Surgery, Units of measurement, Source, Room

0

Parents/caregivers of hospitalized patients are at risk of sleep disruption. We performed a cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative evaluation of sleep in parents/caregivers of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT; n = 17). Additionally, we explored the frequency of room entries for hospitalized patients undergoing HSCT (n = 189 nights). Twelve caregivers (71%) demonstrated significant sleep disturbance, 12 (71%) described sleep quality as poor, 15 (88%) averaged < 6 hours of sleep per night, 14 (82%) awakened at least four times per night. Patient rooms were entered a median of 12 times per night (interquartile range 10-15). Intervention studies to improve caregiver sleep during hospitalization are needed.

Concepts: Caregiver, Patient, Hospital, Sleep, Physician, Interquartile range, Hematopoietic stem cell, Room

0

Immunocompromised patients are at risk of invasive fungal infection. These high-risk patients are nursed in protective isolation to reduce the risk of nosocomial aspergillosis while in hospital-ideally in a positive pressure single room with high-efficiency particulate air filtration. However, neutral pressure rooms are a potential alternative, especially for patients requiring both protective and source isolation. This study examined mold and bacterial concentrations in air samples from positive and neutral pressure rooms to assess whether neutral pressure rooms offer a similar environment to that of positive pressure rooms in terms of mold concentrations in the air. Mold concentrations were found to be similar in the positive and neutral pressure room types examined in this study. These results add to the paucity of literature in this area.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Bacteria, Hospital, Tertiary referral hospital, Tertiary care, Rooms, Room

0

The present study is aimed at examining the status of violence among the students of nursing, midwifery, and operating room. A self-reporting questionnaire with two sections of demographic characteristics and experience of violence was used. The data obtained were analyzed, using SPSS software. 58.7 percent of the students had a history of violence in the previous year. The maximum percentage of violence exposure belonged to the students of operating room (76.9%). The highest incidence of violence was verbal (76.4%), happened in patients' rooms (32.9%) and was in the form of insult (75.1%). Accordingly, preventive actions are required to prevent and control violence and support students. Informing students about violence, communicative skills, reaction, and coping with violence during studying is necessary. Therefore, educational authorities and theoretical and clinical instructors should take appropriate measures in order to prevent violence and create supportive mechanisms for the students.

Concepts: Present, Education, Learning, Demographics, Communication, SPSS, Rooms, Room

0

Current literature examining the relationship between door opening rate, number of people present and microbial air contamination in the operating room is limited. Studies are especially needed from low- and middle-income countries, where the risk of surgical site infections is high.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Room

0

Malpractice claims for non-operating room anesthesia care (NORA) had a higher proportion of claims for death than claims in operating rooms (ORs). NORA claims most frequently involved monitored anesthesia care. Inadequate oxygenation/ventilation was responsible for one-third of NORA claims, often judged probably preventable by better monitoring. Fewer malpractice claims for NORA occurred than for OR anesthesia as assessed by the relative numbers of in NORA versus OR procedures. The proportion of claims in cardiology and radiology NORA locations were increased compared with estimates of cases in these locations. Although NORA is safe, adherence to safe clinical practice is important.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Medical malpractice, Rooms, Post anesthesia care unit, Room

0

Adverse events due to energy device use in surgical operating rooms are a daily occurrence. These occur at a rate of approximately 1-2 per 1000 operations. Hundreds of operating room fires occur each year in the United States, some causing severe injury and even mortality. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) therefore created the first comprehensive educational curriculum on the safe use of surgical energy devices, called Fundamental Use of Surgical Energy (FUSE). This paper describes the history, development, and purpose of this important training program for all members of the operating room team.

Concepts: United States, Surgery, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Device, Latin America, Curriculum, Room