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Concept: Room


This paper presents the results of investigations whose aim was to describe the influence of the pressure difference level on the ability of contaminants migration between neighbouring rooms in dynamic conditions associated with door swing. The analysis was based on airflow visualization made with cold smoke, which simulated the heavy contaminants. The test room was pressurized to a specific level and then the door was opened to observe the trail of the smoke plume in the plane of the door. The door was opened in both directions: to the positively and negatively pressurized room. This study focuses on the visualization of smoke plume discharge and an uncertainty analysis is not applicable. Unlike other studies which focus on the analysis of pressure difference, the present study looks at the contaminants which are heavier than air and on “pumping out” the contaminants by means of door swing. Setting the proper level of pressure difference between the contaminated room and the neighbouring rooms can prove instrumental in ensuring protection against toxic contaminants migration. This study helped to establish the threshold of pressure difference necessary to reduce migration of heavy contaminants to neighbouring rooms.

Concepts: Present, Toxicology, Pressure, Atmospheric pressure, Plane, Rooms, Room


The indoor biome is a novel habitat which recent studies have shown exhibit not only high microbial diversity, but also high arthropod diversity. Here, we analyze findings from a survey of 50 houses (southeastern USA) within the context of additional survey data concerning house and room features, along with resident behavior, to explore how arthropod diversity and community composition are influenced by physical aspects of rooms and their usage, as well as the lifestyles of human residents. We found that indoor arthropod diversity is strongly influenced by access to the outdoors and carpeted rooms hosted more types of arthropods than non-carpeted rooms. Arthropod communities were similar across most room types, but basements exhibited more unique community compositions. Resident behavior such as house tidiness, pesticide usage, and pet ownership showed no significant influence on arthropod community composition. Arthropod communities across all rooms in houses exhibit trophic structure-with both generalized predators and scavengers included in the most frequently found groups. These findings suggest that indoor arthropods serve as a connection to the outdoors, and that there is still much yet to be discovered about their impact on indoor health and the unique ecological dynamics within our homes.

Concepts: Arthropod, Ecology, Natural resource, Community, House, Rooms, Basement, Room


A positive patient safety climate within teams has been associated with higher safety performance. The aim of this study was to describe and compare attitudes to patient safety among the various professionals in surgical teams in Swedish operating room (OR) departments. A further aim was to study nurse managers in the OR and medical directors' estimations of their staffs' attitudes to patient safety.

Concepts: Cross-sectional study, Surgery, Physician, Team, The Various, Rooms, Room


The spatial learning skills of high and low stress juvenile mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) were tested in a dichotomous choice apparatus. Groups of fish were formed based on background blood cortisol levels and required to learn the location of a food reward hidden in one of two compartments. Low stress fish characterised by low background levels of the stress hormone cortisol had higher activity levels and entered both rewarded and unrewarded rooms frequently. Within the first week of exposure, however, their preference for the rewarded room increased, indicative of learning. Fish that had high background levels of cortisol, in contrast, showed low levels of activity but when they chose between the two rooms they chose the rewarded room most often but showed less improvement over time. After 12 days in the apparatus, both low and high stress fish had similar ratios of rewarded vs unrewarded room entrances. Our results suggest that proactive coping styles may increase exposure to novel contexts and thus favour faster learning but at the cost of reduced initial accuracy.

Concepts: Psychology, Skill, Cortisol, Learning, Rooms, Argyrosomus, Room, Argyrosomus japonicus


The introduction of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers has had a positive influence on compliance of healthcare workers with the recommended guidelines for hand hygiene. However, establishing the best location for alcohol-based hand rub dispensers remains a problem, and no method is currently available to optimize the location of these devices. In this paper we describe a method to determine the optimal location for alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in patient rooms.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Patient, Optimization, Introduction, Room


The contamination levels and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors in indoor air of children’s bedrooms in Finland, Northern Europe, were investigated. Our study is among the most comprehensive indoor air monitoring studies (n = 57) and to our knowledge the first one to analyse air in children’s bedrooms for PFASs (17 PFAAs and 9 precursors, including two acrylates, 6:2 FTAC and 6:2 FTMAC). The most frequently detected compound was 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) with the highest median concentration (3570 pg/m(3)). FTOH concentrations were generally similar to previous studies, indicating that in 2014/2015 the impact of the industrial transition had been minor on FTOH levels in indoor air. However, in contrast to earlier studies (with one exception), median concentrations of 6:2 FTOH were higher than 10:2 FTOH. The C8 PFAAs are still the most abundant acids, even though they have now been phased out by major manufacturers. The mean concentrations of FOSE/As, especially MeFOSE (89.9 pg/m(3)), were at least an order of magnitude lower compared to previous studies. Collectively the comparison of FTOHs, PFAAs and FOSE/FOSAs with previous studies indicates that indoor air levels of PFASs display a time lag to changes in production of several years. This is the first indoor air study investigating 6:2 FTMAC, which was frequently detected (58%) and displayed some of the highest maximum concentrations (13 000 pg/m(3)). There were several statistically significant correlations between particular house and room characteristics and PFAS concentrations, most interestingly higher EtFOSE air concentrations in rooms with plastic floors compared to wood or laminate.

Concepts: Statistics, Concentration, Arithmetic mean, Mean, Rooms, Fluorotelomer, Fluorotelomer alcohol, Room


In many orthopaedic operating rooms, anaesthesia providers routinely wear lead aprons for protection from radiation, but some studies have questioned whether this is needed. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that measured the amount of radiation that anaesthetists were exposed to in the orthopaedic operating room. Multiple studies have shown that at 1.5 m from the source of radiation, anaesthetists received no radiation, or amounts so small that a person would have to be present in an unreasonable number of operations to receive cumulative doses of any significance. Radiation doses at this distance were often at the limits of the sensitivity of the measuring dosimeter. We question the need to wear lead protection for anaesthesia providers who are routinely at 1.5 m or a greater distance from standard fluoroscopy units.

Concepts: Ionizing radiation, X-ray, Measurement, Metrology, Surgery, Units of measurement, Source, Room


Prior studies have suggested that emergency department (ED) return visits resulting in admission may be a more robust quality indicator than all 72-hour returns. The objective was to evaluate factors that contribute to admission within 72 hours of ED discharge. Each return visit resulting in admission was independently reviewed by 3 physicians. Analysis was by descriptive statistics. Of 45 071 ED discharges, 4.1% returned within 72 hours; 0.96% returned for related reasons and were admitted to wards (91.2%), intensive care units (6.5%), or operating rooms (1.2%). Management was acceptable in 92.6%, suboptimal in 7.4%. Admissions were illness (94.9%), patient (1.6%), and physician related (3.5%). Almost all admissions within 72 hours after ED discharge are illness related, including all intensive care unit admissions and the majority of operating room admissions. Deficiencies in ED care are rarely the reason for admission on return. ED return visits resulting in admission may not be reflective of ED quality of care.

Concepts: Medicine, Patient, Hospital, Intensive care medicine, Physician, Room, Return


To describe pros and cons of some radiation protection measures and the implications on the design of a neurosurgery operating room.

Concepts: Surgery, Rooms, Operating room management, Room


Operating rooms (ORs) are an important source of hospital revenue, and utilization rate is a key determinant of OR efficiency. Multiple factors contribute to OR underutilization, and OR managers may have biased views about which factors contribute most to OR underutilization. We examined various factors leading to OR underutilization at one academic tertriary care center. Data were collected retrospectively from over a 12-month period. Contribution to OR underutilization was measured in terms of hours of OR underutilization. Statistical significance between categories and days was calculated using an unpaired t test. By comparing means of the various contributors to OR underutilization (patient in the room, turnover time, scheduling gaps, OR holds, closed rooms), we determined that mid/end-of-day gaps and closed rooms contributed the most hours (9.7% and 4.6%, respectively; P < .0001) to OR underutilization, whereas turnover time and "patient in the room" contributed the least (2.0% and 0.8%, respectively; P < .0001). The contributors to OR underutilization are complex, and many OR staff from physicians to nurses and OR administrators may have biased views about which factors contribute most predominantly to inefficiency. Awareness of how various factors contribute to OR underutilization can pave the way for goal-directed changes on a systems-based level to improve efficiency in the OR by decreasing underutilization.

Concepts: Statistics, Hospital, Statistical significance, Physician, Statistical hypothesis testing, The Various, Rooms, Room