Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Role


Fathers' involvement in and influence on the health and development of their children have increased in a myriad of ways in the past 10 years and have been widely studied. The role of pediatricians in working with fathers has correspondingly increased in importance. This report reviews new studies of the epidemiology of father involvement, including nonresidential as well as residential fathers. The effects of father involvement on child outcomes are discussed within each phase of a child’s development. Particular emphasis is placed on (1) fathers' involvement across childhood ages and (2) the influence of fathers' physical and mental health on their children. Implications and advice for all child health providers to encourage and support father involvement are outlined.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Child, Childhood, Gender role, Developmental psychology, Human development, Father, Role


Prior research shows that male intercollegiate athletes are at risk for perpetrating sexual violence. Whether this risk extends to male recreational athletes has not been explored. This study assessed associations between attitudes toward women, rape myth acceptance, and prevalence of sexual coercion among 379 male, undergraduate recreational and intercollegiate athletes and non-athletes. Our analyses showed significant differences between the responses of athletes and non-athletes for all dependent variables, and intercollegiate and recreational athletes on attitudes toward women and the prevalence of sexual coercion. Controlling for rape myth acceptance and traditional gender role attitudes eliminated differences between athletes and non-athletes in prevalence of sexual coercion.

Concepts: Female, Gender, Gender role, Woman, Transgender, Role, Masculinity, Gender studies


The aim of this study is to call attention to the role that radioactive iodine ((131)I) and stapes surgery may play in causing hyposalivation.

Concepts: Chernobyl disaster, Nuclear medicine, Isotopes of iodine, Radiation therapy, Gender role, Play, Role


This study examined the contribution of gender role self-concept (expressiveness and instrumentality) on active interest in and use of Internet-delivered health information among young men and women. Four hundred and twenty university students reported health behaviours and perceived personal vulnerability regarding five diseases. We analysed active interest in receiving health-related information concerning these diseases (providing email address to receive a link to health-related websites) and actual use of provided websites two weeks afterwards. Usage of health-related information via the Internet was objectively assessed by recording log-ins on the website and obtaining individual click counts. In both sexes, higher expressiveness was independently associated with being more likely to show active interest in health-related information. Additionally, expressiveness was positively associated with website use in men independent of age, personal vulnerability and reported health behaviours. Thus, an expressive self-concept facilitates the use of health-related information, especially among men.

Concepts: Gender, Gender role, Gender identity, World Wide Web, Transgender, Internet, Man, Role


Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between empathy and moral judgment. In the second study, a subsample (n = 334) completed a self-report empathy questionnaire. Results showed some sex differences in the experimental paradigm, but with minuscule effect sizes. Conversely, women did portray themselves as more empathic through self-reports. In addition, utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas were less frequent in women, although these differences also had small effect sizes. These findings suggest that sex differences in empathy are highly driven by the assessment measure. In particular, self-reports may induce biases leading individuals to assume gender-role stereotypes. Awareness of the role of measurement instruments in this field may hone our understanding of the links between empathy, sex differences, and gender roles.

Concepts: Measurement, Sexual dimorphism, Gender, Sex, Gender role, Social psychology, Role, Gender differences


Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviors have also been linked with viewing of associated web content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims, and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviors and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The current study investigates the association of cyberbullying roles with viewing of specific suicide-related web content and psychological problems. Data from N = 19,406 (50 percent girls) 11-16-year-olds (M = 13.54, SD = 1.68) of a representative sample of Internet-using children in Europe were analyzed. Self-reports were obtained for cyberbullying role, viewing of web content related to self-harm, and suicide, as well as the emotional, peer, and conduct problem subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with those not involved in cyberbullying, viewing of web content related to suicide was higher for cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, but not for cyberbullies. Viewing of web content related to self-harm was higher for all cyberbullying roles, especially for cyberbully-victims. Rates of emotional problems were higher among cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, rates of peer problems were higher for cybervictims, and rates of conduct problems were higher for all cyberbullying roles. Moreover, the links between cyberbullying role and viewing of suicide-related web content were independent of psychological problems. The results can be useful to more precisely target efforts toward the specific problems of each cyberbullying role. The outcomes on viewing of web content also indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on Internet platforms.

Concepts: Psychology, Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Sociology, Multinomial logit, Role, Bullying, Web content


The sexual double standard (SDS) suggests that women are evaluated negatively and men positively for engaging in similar sexual behaviors. According to social role theory, the SDS exists due to gender role structures. Consequently, perceived violations of women’s sexual behavior are associated with the SDS. In addition to gender role violations of sexual behavior, two additional violations of gender roles exist: heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics. The current study aims to investigate whether the SDS persists for sexual orientation-violating and gender role characteristic-violating targets, and to examine which of the three gender role violations influence evaluations of others' sexual behavior. A US-sample of 483 participants evaluated target individuals who were either female/male, heterosexual/gay man or lesbian, feminine/masculine, and had 1/12 sexual partners. Results indicate that SDS persists for gender role violating targets, but is exhibited differently for targets violating heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics.

Concepts: Gender, Gender role, Human behavior, Gender identity, Sexual orientation, Transgender, Role, Heterosexuality


We examined differences in perceived stress and coping strategies based on gender role identity (GRI) and sex among traditional and non-traditional college students.

Concepts: Gender, Gender role, Human behavior, Gender identity, Role, Identity, Gender studies, Queer theory


As much as 85 % of health research is believed to be wasted because it is not published or reported, the design is poor or does not consider what is already known in the topic area. Although a great deal of work has been done in the UK to reduce research waste, the role of patients and the public has not been discussed.This paper describes a survey, on the role of patients in reducing research waste, which was carried out as part of a larger piece of work on reducing waste in healthcare. The study found that patients were interested in reducing research waste. The key roles they play in research, for example being co-applicants for funding, members of project teams, co-researchers, means they have some shared responsibility for making sure the quality of research is high. This includes finding out what is already known about a topic and getting the study design right before seeking funding, publishing and reporting the results when the study is finished. Recognising where waste happens is part of good management of a research study.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Scientific method, Patient, Illness, The Key, Publishing, Role


As service dogs, emotional support dogs, and therapy dogs have become more prevalent in the USA, so too has the controversy surrounding their legitimacy. Yet, there is a lack of objective data regarding the public’s understanding of the role played by each of these types of animals, as well as their perceptions regarding the legitimacy of their integration. An anonymous, online survey was distributed to examine the perceptions of US adults who do not own any type of assistance animal. A total of 505 individuals responded to the online survey, yielding 284 usable responses. Results suggest widespread misconceptions about definitions, rules, regulations, and rights associated with each type of assistance dog. In general, service dogs are more likely to be perceived as helping with a legitimate need, and their access to public spaces is viewed favorably. While there are some concerns about the legitimacy and necessary access rights for emotional support dogs, members of the public correctly identified the roles and rights of therapy dogs. Despite the media’s focus on abuses and false representation of these dogs, most participants reported feeling the majority of people are not taking advantage of the system.

Concepts: Psychology, Understanding, Perception, Dog, Role, Legitimacy, Assistance dogs, Service dog