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Concept: Robert C. Merton


Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common gastrointestinal illness, which affects the quality of life with substantial morbidity and mortality. The management includes medical, endoscopic and surgical approaches with the need for interaction between various specialties, calling for a concerted multidisciplinary approach. However, at the time of this publication, guidelines to establish care of these patients are lacking. This review provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the studies summarizing the various treatment options available, including medical, surgical and endoscopic options. In addition, technological advances such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrophy, endoscopic shock wave lithotripsy and endoscopic ultrasound can now be offered with reasonable success for pancreatic decompression, stricture dilatation with stent placement, stone fragmentation, pseudocyst drainage, and other endoscopic interventions such as celiac plexus block for pain relief. We emphasize the endoscopic options in this review, and attempt to extract the most up to date information from the current literature. The treatment of CP and its complications are discussed extensively. Complications such as biliary strictures. pancreatic pseudocysts, and chronic pain are common issues that arise as long-term complications of CP. These often require endoscopic or surgical management and possibly a combination of approaches, however choosing amongst the various therapeutic and palliative modalities while weighing the risks and benefits, makes the management of CP challenging. Treatment goals should be not just to control symptoms but also to prevent disease progression. Our aim in this paper is to advocate and emphasize an evidence based approach for the management of CP and associated long term complications.

Concepts: Medicine, Pain, Pancreatic cancer, Term, Suffering, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Robert C. Merton, Celiac plexus


The Amatsu tracheoesophageal shunt (ATES) represents a nonprosthesis surgical option for voice restoration in laryngectomized patients. However, data regarding the long-term efficacy of ATES are lacking.

Concepts: Derivative, Myron Scholes, Robert C. Merton


Long-term prophylaxis is needed in many patients with hereditary angioedema and poses many challenges. Attenuated androgens are effective in many but are limited by side effect profiles. There is less evidence for efficacy of tranexamic acid and progestagens; however, the small side effect profile makes tranexamic acid an option for prophylaxis in children and progestagens an option for women. C1 inhibitor is beneficial, but at present requires intravenous delivery and may need dose titration for maximum efficacy. Short-term prophylaxis should be considered for all procedures. New therapies are promising in overcoming many problems encountered with current options for long-term prophylaxis.

Concepts: Time, Effectiveness, Efficacy, Derivative, Term, Hereditary angioedema, Myron Scholes, Robert C. Merton


Ureterocalicostomy (UC) is a well-established treatment option for patients with recurrent ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with postoperative fibrosis and a relatively inaccessible renal pelvis. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcome of UC and factors predicting its failure.

Concepts: Time, Kidney, Derivative, Term, Long-term memory, Long-Term Capital Management, Myron Scholes, Robert C. Merton


Severe post-traumatic ankle arthritis poses a reconstructive challenge in young and active patients. Although technically demanding and despite unsolved immunological issues, bipolar fresh total osteochondral allograft (BFTOA) represent an intriguing option to arthrodesis and prosthetic replacement. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the outcomes of a series of 48 ankle BFTOA at 10 years follow up and to investigate the rate of survival long term.

Concepts: Time, Immunology, Derivative, Term, Long-term memory, Long-Term Capital Management, Myron Scholes, Robert C. Merton


The orally available BRAF kinase inhibitor vemurafenib is an effective and tolerable treatment option for patients with metastatic melanoma harbouring BRAF(V600) mutations. We assessed the safety of vemurafenib in a large population of patients with few alternative treatment options; we report updated 2-year safety.

Concepts: Metastasis, Melanoma, Derivative, Alternative medicine, Myron Scholes, Robert C. Merton


To assess long-term renal preservation and surgical outcomes in patients undergoing ureteric substitution with ileum. This has been a mainstay of reconstruction options for lengthy ureteral defects.

Concepts: Time, Kidney, Ureter, Derivative, Term, Long-Term Capital Management, Myron Scholes, Robert C. Merton


The Fontan palliation is associated with numerous complications during long-term. The Fontan conversion operation has been advocated as an option to avoid some of these problems by converting classical Fontan types to modern forms of the circulation. Early mortality of Fontan conversion, however, remains unclear as available reports include limited numbers of patients and the results are heterogeneous.

Concepts: Sociology, Derivative, Modern history, Myron Scholes, Arbitrage, Early modern Europe, Robert C. Merton, Early music


Older citizens are directly concerned, as potential beneficiaries and informal caregivers, by access to long-term care (LTC) services matching their expectations. The aim of this research was to collect their opinions regarding LTC arrangements for a diversity of disability profiles.

Concepts: Evolution, Derivative, Myron Scholes, Robert C. Merton


Central cemento-ossifying fibroma is characterized by the combined production of osteoid and cementoid tissue. Radiographically, this lesion is presented as an outlined cortical and variable radiopaque spots, also can be present complete radiolucent or different degrees of radiopacity. The recommended treatment is curettage or enucleation, and the recurrence rate is less than 5%. Considering that surgical treatment is invasive, mainly in large lesions, this study aims to report a patient in whom conservative treatment was carried out by involving the preservation of teeth, with a long-term follow-up. A 48-year-old black female patient, diagnosed with central cemento-ossifying fibroma in mandible, treated conservatively and a 2 years of follow-up. It was concluded that the conservative treatment with a long term of follow-up for maintaining teeth was satisfactory.

Concepts: Time, Term, Myron Scholes, Robert C. Merton