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Concept: Road transport


To estimate the areas of greatest density of road traffic accidents with fatalities at 24hours per km(2)/year in Spain from 2008 to 2011, using a geographic information system.

Concepts: Geography, Geographic information system, Tram accident, Road transport, Accidents, Traffic collision, Geographic information science, Geostatistics


Spinal immobilisation during extrication of patients in road traffic collisions is routinely used despite the lack of evidence for this practice. In a previous proof of concept study (n=1), we recorded up to four times more cervical spine movement during extrication using conventional techniques than self-controlled extrication.

Concepts: Lumbar vertebrae, Vertebral column, Cervical vertebrae, Thoracic vertebrae, Road transport, Road accidents, Car safety


Traffic fatalities and injuries constitute a major global public health problem and the United States has fallen behind other developed countries in traffic safety. Yet, New York City stands out as a traffic safety model in the nation with its low fatality rate and its significant reductions in various types of crashes. This study develops a safety framework that considers three principal axes that affect crashes: why, who, and where. While “why” concerns exposure, conflict, and speed, “who” and “where” consider the unique characteristics of the road users and the surrounding built environment. Grounded in this safety framework, the effectiveness of 13 safety countermeasures and street designs installed in New York City between 1990 and 2008 are evaluated using a two group pretest-posttest design. The potential regression-to-the-mean problem is addressed by applying the ANCOVA regression approach. The results show that signal related countermeasures that are designed to reduce conflicts: split phase timing, signal installations, all pedestrian phase, and increasing pedestrian crossing time, reduce crashes. Traffic calming measures, including road diets, are also found to have significant safety benefits. Countermeasures that are designed to alert drivers' cognitive attention, such as high visibility crosswalks and posted speed limit reduction signs, appear to have a lesser effect. The various safety countermeasures implemented in New York City considered all three important dimensions in the safety framework: why, who, and where. The study suggests these strategies are likely to contribute to the large reductions in crashes in New York City. We also demonstrate that a rigorous quasi-experimental design can be readily deployed in transportation safety evaluation studies.

Concepts: United States, United Kingdom, New York City, Road, Road transport, Pedestrian, Traffic calming, Pedestrian crossing


The ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery is responsible for scission of the cytokinetic bridge that connects daughter cells at the end of mitosis. Specific endosomes are now found to mediate local bridge constriction and actin clearance in human cells, which contribute to the recruitment of ESCRT components at the abscission site.

Concepts: Human, Eukaryote, Golgi apparatus, Cell division, Chromosome, Road, Road transport, Cytokinesis


Zigbee is expected to have an explosive growth in wireless medical monitoring systems because it possesses the advantages of low cost, safe power strength and easy deployment. However, little work focuses on solving the bottleneck issue at the Zigbee coordinator in a data-intensive system to guarantee transmission reliability of life-critical data. This paper proposes Coordinator Traffic Diffusion (CTD) method to redirect excessive traffic from Coordinator to the Sink in Electrocardiography (ECG) medical application. CTD router, which implements CTD design, automatically redirects ECG data traffic to the sink node without involving the Coordinator, and thus reliable real-time ECG monitoring service can be delivered precisely. CTD design is tested in both TI CC2530 Zigbee platform and NS2 simulation. Experiment result demonstrates CTD design can assist routers in successfully delivering real-time ECG data samples reliably with the best transmission rate, 24 Kbps. This performance cannot be achieved by the original Zigbee design.

Concepts: Cardiology, Reliability, Road transport, Electrocardiography, Bottleneck, Medical monitor, Redirect, Router


In low and middle income countries road traffic injuries are commonly under-reported. This problem is significantly higher among those less severely injured road users. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and the level of ascertainment of road traffic injuries and deaths by traffic police and hospital registry. In this study two-sample capture-recapture method was applied using data from traffic police and hospital injury surveillance, through June 2012 to May 2013. The study was conducted on one of the busiest highways in Ethiopia, the Addis Ababa - Hawassa highway. Primary data were collected by accident investigators and hospital emergency nurses using a structured checklist. Four matching variables; name of the victim, sex, place and time of the accidents was used to get the matched cases. During the study period the police independently reported 224 deaths and 446 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer while hospitals reported 123 deaths and 1,046 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer. Both sources in common captured 73 deaths and 248 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer. Taking the two data sources into consideration, the capture-recapture model estimated the incidence of deaths and injuries ranged 368-390 and 1,869-1,895 per billion vehicle kilometer, respectively. The police source captured 57.4%-60.9% of deaths and 23.5%-23.9% of injuries while the hospital sources captured 31.5%-33.4% of deaths and 55.2%-56% of injuries. Deaths and injuries among females, younger age victims, cyclists/motorcyclists and pedestrians were under-reported by traffic police. In conclusion neither of the two sources independently provided accurate coverage of road traffic incident related deaths and injuries. Strengthening both systems is necessary to obtain accurate information on road accidents and human causalities.

Concepts: Tram accident, Road transport, Accidents, Traffic collision, Road accidents


Pokémon GO (Niantic Labs, released on 22 July 2016 in Japan) is an augmented reality game that gained huge popularity worldwide. Despite concern about Pokémon GO-related traffic collisions, the effect of playing Pokémon GO on the incidence of traffic injuries remains unknown. We performed a population-based quasi-experimental study using national data from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis, Japan. The outcome was incidence of traffic injuries. Of 127 082 000 people in Japan, 886 fatal traffic injuries were observed between 1 June and 31 August in 2016. Regression discontinuity analysis showed a non-significant change in incidence of fatal traffic injuries after the Pokémon GO release (0.017 deaths per million, 95%CI -0.036 to 0.071). This finding was similar to that obtained from a difference-in-differences analysis. Effect of Pokémon GO on fatal traffic injuries may be negligible.

Concepts: Scientific method, Tram accident, Virtual reality, Road transport, Augmented reality


In most countries, road traffic collisions (RTCs) are the main cause of cervical spine injuries. There are several techniques in use for spinal immobilisation during prehospital extrication; however, the evidence for these is currently poor.

Concepts: Lumbar vertebrae, Vertebral column, Cervical vertebrae, Thoracic vertebrae, Road transport, Road accidents, Car safety


Reliable data on traffic deaths are important for planning road safety programmes and evaluating progress. Although pedestrians comprise approximately 40% of traffic deaths in low-income and middle-income countries, official government statistics in India suggest that pedestrians comprise less than 10% of deaths.

Concepts: Data, Road, Road transport, Traffic, Pedestrian, Sovereign state


Transport is an important determinant of health and there is a well-established association between socio-economic status (SES) and risk of road accidents. Effective traffic calming interventions such as 20 mph zones and limits may therefore improve health and reduce health inequalities.

Concepts: Road, Road transport